Bhs 499 07 memory and amnesia
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BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia. History of Memory Research and Early Memory Models. Three Definitions of Memory. The location where memory is stored. The physical entity that holds the memory: Trace Engram The processes used to acquire (learn), store (encode) or retrieve information.

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BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia

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Bhs 499 07 memory and amnesia

BHS 499-07Memory and Amnesia

History of Memory Research and Early Memory Models


Three definitions of memory

Three Definitions of Memory

  • The location where memory is stored.

  • The physical entity that holds the memory:

    • Trace

    • Engram

  • The processes used to acquire (learn), store (encode) or retrieve information.


Metaphors for memory

Metaphors for Memory

  • Metaphors are used because memory is hard to understand and talk about.

  • Different metaphors capture different aspects of memory.

  • The number of metaphors tells us about the complexity of memory.

  • Some metaphors are better than others.

    • Memory is NOT like a muscle – more like a key.


Metaphors 1

Metaphors 1

  • Recorder of experience

    • Wax tablet

    • Record player

    • Writing pad

    • Tape recorder

    • Video camera

  • Organized storage

    • House

    • Library

    • Dictionary


Metaphors 2

Metaphors 2

  • Interconnections

    • Switchboard

    • Network

  • Jumbled Storage

    • Birds in an aviary

    • Purse

    • Junk drawer

    • Garbage can


Metaphors 3

Metaphors 3

  • Temporal Availability

    • Conveyor belt

  • Content Addressability

    • Lock and key

    • Tuning fork

  • Forgetting of Details

    • Leaky bucket

    • Cow’s stomach

    • Acid bath


Metaphors 4

Metaphors 4

  • Reconstruction

    • Rebuilding a dinosaur

  • Active processing

    • Workbench

    • Computer program


The ancients

The Ancients

  • Plato (428?-347? B.C.)

    • Rationalist

    • Dualist – mind and body are distinct

    • Wax tablet metaphor (can be erased, the better the impression the more readable.

  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

    • Empiricist

    • Laws of association

      • Similarity

      • Contrast

      • Contiguity


Modern precursors

Modern Precursors

  • St. Augustine (354-430)

    • Advanced description of memory in the Confessions similar to modern views.

  • Robert Hooke (1635-1703)

    • Modern insights into memory, but were ignored when he was overshadowed by Newton.

  • Darwin and natural selection (1809-1882)

    • Organism changes to exploit the environment

    • Memory has developed to perform specific tasks.


Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of Mind

  • Empiricists – extended Aristotle’s ideas

    • Berkeley, Locke, Mill, Hume

    • Knowledge through observation

    • Associationism

  • Rationalists – antagonists to empiricists

    • Descartes, Kant

    • Active involvement of the mind building ideas

    • Knowledge through theories (e.g., schemas)


Early researchers

Early Researchers

  • Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

    • Nonsense syllables

      • PIM DAG ZOL CEK

    • Learning curve – massed vs spaced practice

    • Forgetting curve – forgetting occurs rapidly

    • Overlearning – studying after something is learned

    • Savings – decreased effort needed to relearn

  • Bartlett (1886-1969)

    • How does prior knowledge influence memory

    • Reconstruction is guided by schemas (concepts)


Gestalt psychology

Gestalt Psychology

  • Gestalt movement

    • Kohler, Koffka, Wertheimer

    • The whole is different that the sum of its parts.

    • Anti-reductionistic

      • But did acknowledge the importance of understanding the components of thought.

    • Memory influenced by the configuration of elements and context.

    • Isomorphism of mental representation


Behaviorism

Behaviorism

  • Behaviorism (Pavlov, Thorndike)

    • Psychology should be the study of observable behavior.

      • Reacting against introspection

    • Associated with the term “learning”.

    • Later behaviorists (like Tolman) used mental explanations and representations (maps).

  • Classical and operant conditioning both involve memory.


Verbal learning

Verbal Learning

  • A behaviorist approach to the learning of verbal materials.

    • Developed from Ebbinghaus’s work.

  • Memorization is the “attachment of responses to stimuli”

  • Forgetting is the “loss of response availability”


Paired associates paradigm

Paired Associates Paradigm

  • Paired associate learning – people memorize pairs of items (BIRD-GLOVE):

    • A-B -- the first item is the cue and the second is the response

    • A-B C-D paradigm (two lists are learned)

    • A-B A-D paradigm (two associations learned)

    • A-B A-B’ paradigm (synonyms)

    • A-B A-Br paradigm (recombinations – hard!)


Early neuroscience lashley

Early Neuroscience -- Lashley

  • Lashley (1890-1958)

  • Search for the engram

  • Rats learned a maze.

  • Lashley progressively removed larger and larger portions of rats brains, from different locations.

  • Memory affected more by the amount of brain tissue removed, not the location.


Bhs 499 07 memory and amnesia

Hebb

  • Hebb -- The Organization of Behavior (1949)

  • Forerunner of computational neuroscience

    • Mathematical modeling of brain activity

  • What fires together, wires together

  • Signal reverberation within collections of cell assemblies followed by a change in neural interconnections


The cognitive revolution

The Cognitive Revolution

  • Thought is a valid subject for study

  • This is the field of psychology associated with the term “memory”

  • Adopted the methodological rigor of the behaviorists

  • The computer metaphor

    • hardware vs. software


Miller s magic number

Miller’s Magic Number

  • George Miller

    • The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two (1956) – describes the capacity of short term memory

    • Different for verbal items and digits

  • Limited capacity of memory

  • Organization aids memory (chunking)


The modal model of memory

The Modal Model of Memory

  • Modal refers to sensory modality (way of receiving info from outside world).

  • Heuristic means “rule of thumb” – this is a way of thinking about memory but not to be taken literally.

  • The guiding framework for decades.


Multiple memory systems

Multiple Memory Systems

  • Memory is not unitary but consists of several subcomponents (parts).

  • Tulving’s Triarchic Theory:

    • EpisodicAutonoetic (self)

    • SemanticNoetic (formal knowledge)

    • ProceduralAnoetic (automatic skills)


Other classifications

Other Classifications

  • Declarative vs Nondeclarative

    • Declarative includes episodic and semantic memory

    • Nondeclarative includes procedural memory, classical conditioning and priming

  • Explicit vs implicit

    • Explicit memory involves consciousness, implicit does not.


Current issues

Current Issues

  • Neurological bases for memory

  • Impact and importance of emotion on memory

  • Use of multiple memory sources (fuzzy trace theories)

  • Embodied cognition – how our grounding in the world influences memory


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