The Industrial Revolution. What does the title of this book mean?. Think …. What are the advantages of making items (stationary, clothes, cars) by hand? What are the disadvantages? What are the advantages of mass-production? What are the disadvantages?
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The Industrial Revolution
What does the title of this book mean?
You are a 15-yr-old living in England where the Industrial Revolution has spurred the growth of 1000s of factories. Cheap labor is in great demand. Like millions of other teenagers, you don’t go to school. Instead you work in a factory 6 days a week, 14 hrs a day. The small pay you earn is needed to help support your family. You trudge to work before dawn every day & work until after sundown. The dangerous machines injure your fellow workers. Minding the machines is exhausting, dirty, & dangerous. Inside the factory the air is foul, & it’s so dark it’s hard to see inside.
What emotions does this photograph stir?
How do you think these children feel?
How old does this girl appear to be?
How does her life appear to differ from yours at that age?
How do the working conditions appear dangerous?
Working in the Factories
Would you join a union, go to school, or run away? Why?
Working in the Factory
Which conditions concern you the most?
How have times changed?
How are they similar?
2. Crop Rotation
3. Improved Livestock
Rotating Crops Yearly
That’s one big sheep!
(Think about: Location! Location! Location!; social climate, political climate, what is needed to industrialize)
Coal = Energy 4 Machines
= 4 Machines
Iron Ore = Machines, Tools, & Buildings
- Essential to growth
- wealthy class of ship-owners & merchants w/ $ to spend at home.
- Met once a month @ full moon
3.Rewards for New Ideas:
- Business ppl invested
- Business investors were inventors
- Invest in new machinery
- Build new factories
- Expand operations
(** Excluding paper, electricity, & fire … )
The Role of Individuals
- Well-spaced rows
- Equal depths
- Larger yields
4. Think: “tuLL/driLL”)
- Restored soil
- Nickname: “Turnip Townshend” (fave crop)
- One worker could work 6-8 threads at a time
4. Think: “James & Jenny”
- Made thread stronger, finer, & more even
- But…too lg & expensive for ppl to use at home … which gave rise to what??
“Mule”=offspring of horse & donkey
“Spinning Mule”=offspring, too!
- Used in lg factories
- Weaving of cloth caught up w/ spinning of yarn
- Spinners & weavers worked so fast cotton growers couldn’t keep up!
Early Power Looms: Power comes from overhead shafts which are turned by a water wheel or a steam engine
- Picked & cleaned 10 times as much as before
- ↑in Am. Cotton production
-**Now: enough cotton to keep factories in Britain going
Engines & Travel
-Faster, less fuel
- 1st source of power that could be used anywhere, anytime (used coal … didn’t need to be next to river)
- Over bed: smooth layer of crushed rock
- Not as muddy or dusty
- Heavy wagons could travel over in rainy weather w/o sinking axels into mud
- Could transport goods
- Later: RR lines
- Entrepreneurial spirit
- “Rocket”: engine: hauled 13 tons, 24 mph
- Liverpool-Manchester RR
- Others built RR’s all over GB
- Industrial Middle Class
- Industrial Working Class
What are some effects of this transition?
- Regular hours/shifts
- Aim: “To make men into machines that cannot err”
- Detailed Regulations (fined/lost job if late, drunk; children: beaten
How did this development change the family structure?
- What would probably happen to the present day firm that used the methods described to maintain control over its workers?
- What does this indicate about the need for govt. protection of workers?
How does this challenge Smith’s theory of the roles of govt.?
A few sober & industrious families of at least 5 children each, over the age of 8 years, are wanted at Cotton Factory in Whitestown. Widows with large families would do well to attend this notice.
- Training schools
- $ on roads, canals, RR’s
- in pop & workers
- Roads & canals, RR’s
- Factory labor (women, children)
-1750: Euro=140 million
-1800: Euro=187 million
-1850: Euro=266 million
- in death rates, diseases, & wars
- in food supply
Slum Neighborhood in London
- Now: town-dweller involved in industry, banking, & professions
THINK: Why & how did growth of the bourgeoisie shift pol/econ power in Euro? Why didn’t the masses of factory workers have any effective pol. power? How could this contribute to civil unrest/new pol. system?
Child Coal Miner
Child Labor Debate
Show Nike Video
unequal distribution of wealth
Variety of Goods
the existence of markets (including the labor market)
State owns everything
Equal distribution of wealth
No markets for goods
“vanilla Ice Cream”
Society breeds apathy
State takes care of all basic human needs
Promotes stagnant thought
Show Modern Times