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Four or more understanding the basics of multidetector row ct

Four or More: Understanding the Basics of Multidetector-Row CT

Took 28 minutes going very fast….


Four or more understanding the basics of multidetector row ct1

Four or More: Understanding the Basics of Multidetector-Row CT

6th Annual International Symposium on Multidetector-Row CT

San Francisco, CA

June 23-26, 2004

Sandy Napel, Ph.D.

Department of Radiology

Stanford University School of Medicine

Stanford, California USA

http://www-radiology.stanford.edu/


Outline

Outline

  • Detector and data acquisition basics

  • Helical mode

    • Pitch

    • Image reconstruction

Goal: Provide insight into how to use MDCT


Outline1

Outline

  • Detector and data acquisition basics

  • Helical mode

    • Pitch

    • Image reconstruction


Detector

SDCT

10 mm

z

Detector


Detector1

SDCT

10 mm

z

20+ mm

Detector

MDCT


Detector2

z

Detector

How to slice it?

Uniform or Matrix Array

N elements

Length = Nd

d


Detector3

z

Detector

How to slice it?

Uniform or Matrix Array

N elements

Length = Nd

d

Non-uniform or Adaptive Array


Detector4

z

Detector

How to slice it?

Uniform or Matrix Array

N elements

Length = Nd

d

Non-uniform or Adaptive Array

Hybrid Array

{

thinner inner elements


Detector5

16 x 1.25 mm

Detector

4-Slice Scanners

20 mm

5

2.5

1.5

1

1

1.5

2.5

5

32 mm

4 x 0.5 mm


4 slice scanners collect 4 simultaneous channels of data

4-Slice Scanners Collect 4 Simultaneous Channels of Data

How do we use all

16 elements?

Detector

16 elements

4 DAS channels


4 x 1 25 mm detector configuration

4 x 1.25 mm Detector Configuration

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

Switching Array


4 x 2 5 mm detector configuration

4 x 2.5 mm Detector Configuration

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

Switching Array


4 x 3 75 mm detector configuration

4 x 3.75 mm Detector Configuration

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

Switching Array


4 x 5 0 mm detector configuration

4 x 5.0 mm Detector Configuration

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

Switching Array


Detector6

5

2.5

1.5

1

1

1.5

2.5

5

Detector

Do I get unequally-sized slices from an MDCT scanner with a non-uniform detector array?

NO!


Detector7

5

2.5

1.5

1

1

1.5

2.5

5

Detector

X-ray

source

collimation

2 x 0.5 mm slices


Detector8

Detector

X-ray

source

collimation

4 x 1 mm slices

5

2.5

1.5

1

1

1.5

2.5

5


Detector9

Detector

X-ray

source

collimation

4 x 2.5 mm slices

5

2.5

1.5

1

1

1.5

2.5

5


Detector10

Detector

X-ray

source

collimation

4 x 5 mm slices

5

2.5

1.5

1

1

1.5

2.5

5


8 slice scanners collect 8 simultaneous channels of data

8-Slice Scanners Collect 8 Simultaneous Channels of Data

How do we use all

16 elements?

Detector

16 elements

8 DAS channels


8 x 1 25 mm detector configuration

8 x 1.25 mm Detector Configuration

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

Switching Array


8 x 2 5 mm detector configuration

8 x 2.5 mm Detector Configuration

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

Switching Array


Detector11

Detector

16-Slice Scanners

3 basic detector designs


Detector12

16 x 0.625 mm

4 x 1.25 mm

4 x 1.25 mm

20 mm

Detector

16-Slice Scanners


Detector13

16 x 0.625 mm

4 x 1.25 mm

4 x 1.25 mm

20 mm

16 x 0.75 mm

4 x 1.5 mm

24 mm

4 x 1.5 mm

Detector

16-Slice Scanners


Detector14

16 x 0.625 mm

4 x 1.25 mm

4 x 1.25 mm

20 mm

16 x 0.75 mm

4 x 1.5 mm

24 mm

4 x 1.5 mm

16 x 0.5 mm

12 x 1 mm

12 x 1 mm

32 mm

Detector

16-Slice Scanners


Detector15

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

4 basic detector designs


Detector16

64 x 0.625 mm

40 mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

A:

  • 64 slice scanner:

    • 64 0.625 mm slices over 40 mm

    • Thicker slices available via software


Detector17

40 mm

40 x 0.625 mm

6 x 1.25

mm

6 x 1.25

mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

B:

  • 40 slice scanner:

    • 40 0.625 mm slices over 25 mm

    • 32 1.25 mm slices over 40 mm

    • Thicker slices available via software


Detector18

32 mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

C:

64 x 0.5 mm

  • 32 slice scanner:

    • 32 0.5 mm slices over 16 mm

    • 32 1.0 mm slices over 32 mm

    • Thicker slices available via software


Detector19

4 x 1.2

mm

4 x 1.2

mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

D:

32 x 0.6 mm

29 mm

  • 64 slice scanner:

    • 32 0.6 mm slices over 19 mm

    • 24 1.2 mm slices over 29 mm

  • 64 0.6 mm slices over 19 mm via focal spot shift


Detector20

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

D:

.


Detector21

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

D:

.


Detector22

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

D:

~ 0.3 mm at isocenter

(~ 50% overlap)

.


Detector23

4 x 1.2

mm

4 x 1.2

mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

D:

32 x 0.6 mm

29 mm

  • 64 slice scanner:

    • 32 0.6 mm slices over 19 mm

    • 24 1.2 mm slices over 29 mm

    • 64 0.6 mm slices over 19 mm via focal spot shift

    • Thicker slices available via software


Detector24

Detector

When M ≠ N,

there may be multiple ways to make slices of a given thickness


Detector25

least PVA

4 x 1.2

mm

4 x 1.2

mm

Detector

Example: Make 3.6 mm thick slices with this detector

D:

32 x 0.6 mm

29 mm

  • Sum 6 0.6 mm slices:

    • 0.6 mm slices available

    • Coverage/rotation = 19 mm

  • Sum 3 1.2 mm slices:

    • 0.6 mm slices NOT available

    • Coverage/rotation = 29 mm


Outline2

Outline

  • Detector and data acquisition basics

  • Helical mode

    • Pitch

    • Image reconstruction


Helical pitch

table travel per rotation (mm)

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

Pitch =

slice thickness (mm)

beam width (mm)

Helical Pitch

  • Single-Slice Helical CT:

slice thickness = x-ray ( beam ) width


Helical pitch1

slice thickness <=> D = detector channel width

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

where M = no. of simultaneous slices

Helical Pitch

  • Multi-Slice Helical CT:

1.25 mm

}


Helical pitch2

slice thickness <=> D = detector channel width

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

where M = no. of simultaneous slices

Helical Pitch

  • Multi-Slice Helical CT:

}

2.5 mm


Helical pitch3

slice thickness <=> D = detector channel width

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

where M = no. of simultaneous slices

Helical Pitch

  • Multi-Slice Helical CT:

}

3.75 mm


Helical pitch4

slice thickness <=> D = detector channel width

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

where M = no. of simultaneous slices

Helical Pitch

  • Multi-Slice Helical CT:

}

5 mm


Helical pitch5

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

Helical Pitch

With this definition, intuition regarding artifacts and dose as a function of pitch are independent of M.


Helical pitch6

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

Helical Pitch

On a 4-slice scanner (M=4):

At pitch = 0.75, table travel per rotation is:

= 0.75 • 4 • D

= 3 • D

At pitch = 1.5, table travel per rotation is:

= 1.5 • 4 • D

= 6 • D


Helical pitch7

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

!! (D=.625mm 6 cm/rot)

Helical Pitch

On a 4-slice scanner (M=4):

At pitch = 0.75, table travel per rotation is:

= 0.75 • 4 • D

= 3 • D

On an 64-slice scanner (M=64):

At pitch = 1.5, table travel per rotation is:

= 1.5 • 64 • D

= 96 • D


Outline3

Outline

  • Detector and data acquisition basics

  • Helical mode

    • Pitch

    • Image reconstruction


Reconstruction approaches

Reconstruction Approaches

  • z-interpolation

  • Single-slice rebinning (ASSR)

  • Cone-beam approximations (Feldkamp)


The need for cone beam reconstruction

The Need for Cone Beam Reconstruction

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

z

isocenter

Detector


The need for cone beam reconstruction1

The Need for Cone Beam Reconstruction

Detector

z

isocenter

X-ray Beam Collimator

X-ray Tube Focal Spot


The need for cone beam reconstruction2

The Need for Cone Beam Reconstruction

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

z

isocenter

Detector


The need for cone beam reconstruction3

The Need for Cone Beam Reconstruction

Detector

z

isocenter

X-ray Beam Collimator

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

Inconsistent rays result in artifacts

Affects non-helical and helical mode


Reconstruction approaches1

Reconstruction Approaches

  • z-interpolation

  • Single-slice rebinning (ASSR)

  • Cone-beam approximations (Feldkamp)


Helical single slice mode

Helical Single-slice Mode

helical trajectory

translation

z (mm)

t (s)

Interpolation using samples of single detector ring


Helical multi slice mode

Helical Multi-slice Mode

M helical trajectories

translation

z

t

Interpolation using samples of ALL detector rings


Interpolation in helical ct

180-360

Interpolation in Helical CT

Single-slice CT: Pitch 1

View angle (o)

0-180

180

z (mm)

0


Interpolation in helical ct1

x

x

x

x

desired slice location

Interpolation in Helical CT

Single-slice CT: Pitch 1

View angle (o)

0-180

180-360

360-540

540-720

180

z (mm)

0


Interpolation in helical ct2

x

x

x

x

desired slice location

Interpolation in Helical CT

Single-slice CT: Pitch 2

View angle (o)

0-180

180-360

360-540

180

z (mm)

0


Increasing table speed in helical ct

1

1

180

1DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

180

1DCT:

q

z (mm)

0


Four or more understanding the basics of multidetector row ct

Pitch =

table travel per rotation (mm)

1

2

3

4

M • D (mm)

3 • D (mm)

1

2

3

4

=

= 0.75

4 • D (mm)

z

Using

a 4-slice

MDCT

scanner…


Increasing table speed in helical ct1

2

3

4

4DCT

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

180

1DCT:

q

z (mm)

0

1

1

180

1DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0

At P=0.75, sampling density restored by additional detectors


Increasing table speed in helical ct2

180

q

z (mm)

0

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

1

2

3

4,1

180

4DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

4DCT:

6x table speed


Slice thickness in helical multi slice mode

Slice Thickness in Helical Multi-slice Mode

  • Reconstruction kernel (lung, bone, etc.):

    • In-plane spatial filter

    • Trade off in-plane resolution, noise, and artifact

  • Z-filter:

    • Makes “thicker” slices than basic detector configuration would.

    • Trade off longitudinal resolution, noise and artifacts.


Slice thickness in helical multi slice mode1

1

2

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Slice Thickness in Helical Multi-slice Mode

Example: Pitch 0.75


Slice thickness in helical multi slice mode2

1

2

1

2

3

4

thinnest slice

x

x

1

2

3

4

Slice Thickness in Helical Multi-slice Mode

Example: Pitch 0.75


Slice thickness in helical multi slice mode3

1

2

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Slice Thickness in Helical Multi-slice Mode

thicker slice

x

x

x

x


Slice thickness in helical multi slice mode4

1

2

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Slice Thickness in Helical Multi-slice Mode

  • Z-filter:

    • Makes “thicker” slices than basic detector configuration would.

    • Trade off longitudinal resolution, noise and artifacts.

even thicker slice

x

x

x

x

x

x


Helical multi slice mode1

Helical Multi-slice Mode

Slice thickness is a reconstruction parameter.


Noise as a function of pitch in mdct

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

180

x

x

x

x

x

q

z (mm)

0

Noise as a Function of Pitch in MDCT

1

2

3

4,1

180

4DCT:

P=0.75

q

z (mm)

0

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

4DCT:

P=1.5


Four or more understanding the basics of multidetector row ct

Noise increases with pitch

in MDCT!

  • But be careful…

  • Manufacturers may automatically increase mA to compensate.

  • Therefore, an assumption that increasing pitch reduces dose (as in SDCT) may not be true….


Summary conclusions

Summary/Conclusions

  • Detector and data acquisition basics

  • Helical mode

    • Pitch

    • Image reconstruction

      • z-interpolation (M<16)

      • Other approaches necessary for M>16


Summary conclusions1

Summary/Conclusions

  • Moving forward

    • More detector elements ??

    • More simultaneous slices ??

    • Faster at constant image quality


Summary conclusions2

Summary/Conclusions

  • Moving forward

    • When M=N, there are more slice width options for a given scan

to computer


Summary conclusions3

Summary/Conclusions

  • Moving forward

    • When M=N, there are more slice width options for a given scan

to computer

• Slice thickness will become a viewing parameter.


References and acknowledgements

References and Acknowledgements

  • H Hu and Y Shen, Helical CT reconstruction with longitudinal filtration, Med Phys 25(11)2130-8; 1998.

  • H Hu, Multi-slice helical CT: scan and reconstruction, Med Phys 26(1):5-18; 1999.

  • WA Kalender, Computed Tomography, Publicis MCD Verlag, Munich Germany, 2000.

  • S. Napel, Basic Principles of MDCT, In: Multidetector CT, Principles, Techniques, and Clinical Applications, E. Fishman and R.B. Jeffrey Jr., Eds., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 3-13, 2004.

  • Stanley Fox, David He, Sholom Ackelsberg, Willi Kalender


Four or more understanding the basics of multidetector row ct

Thank You


Outline4

Outline

  • Detector and data acquisition basics

  • Axial multislice mode

  • Helical mode

    • Pitch

    • Image reconstruction


Axial multi slice mode

Axial Multi-Slice Mode

Example of a 4 slice scanner

With a 16 element uniform detector


Axial multi slice mode1

5 mm

4 x 1.25, 2 x 2.5, 1 x 5.0

5 mm

4 x 2.5, 2 x 5.0, 1 x 10

10 mm

15 mm

20 mm

4 x 3.75, 2 x 7.5

4 x 5, 2 x 10

Axial Multi-Slice Mode

Detector Configuration Slice Thicknesses (mm)


Axial multi slice mode2

Axial Multi-Slice Mode

How do I decide?


Axial multi slice mode 1 25 mm slices

5 mm

4 x 1.25, 2 x 2.5, 1 x 5.0

4 x 2.5, 2 x 5.0, 1 x 10

4 x 3.75, 2 x 7.5

4 x 5, 2 x 10

Axial Multi-Slice Mode: 1.25 mm Slices

Detector Configuration Slice Thicknesses (mm)

4i: 4x faster than 1DCT


Axial multi slice mode 2 5 mm slices

5 mm

4 x 1.25, 2 x 2.5, 1 x 5.0

4 x 2.5, 2 x 5.0, 1 x 10

4 x 3.75, 2 x 7.5

4 x 5, 2 x 10

*Thin-slice retros

Axial Multi-Slice Mode: 2.5 mm Slices

Detector Configuration Slice Thicknesses (mm)

2i: 2x faster than 1DCT, less PVA

4i: 4x faster than 1DCT


Axial multi slice mode 5 mm slices

5 mm

4 x 1.25, 2 x 2.5, 1 x 5.0

4 x 2.5, 2 x 5.0, 1 x 10

4 x 3.75, 2 x 7.5

4 x 5, 2 x 10

Axial Multi-Slice Mode: 5 mm Slices

Detector Configuration Slice Thicknesses (mm)

1i: Same speed as 1DCT, much less PVA

2i: 2x faster than 1DCT, less PVA

4i: 4x faster than 1DCT


Reduced partial volume artifact

Reduced Partial Volume Artifact

LightSpeed 5 mm (2i)

CT/i 5 mm

Jones, et. al, Radiology June 2001


Axial multi slice mode 5 mm slices1

5 mm

4 x 1.25, 2 x 2.5, 1 x 5.0

4 x 2.5, 2 x 5.0, 1 x 10

4 x 3.75, 2 x 7.5

4 x 5, 2 x 10

*Thin-slice retros

Axial Multi-Slice Mode: 5 mm Slices

Detector Configuration Slice Thicknesses (mm)

1i: Same speed as 1DCT, much less PVA

2i: 2x faster than 1DCT, less PVA

4i: 4x faster than 1DCT


Axial multi slice mode 10 mm slices

Axial Multi-Slice Mode: 10 mm Slices

For Homework...


Detector26

in some designs

M ≠ N

z

Detector

Multislice or Multidetector??

N Detector Elements

electronics

M Simultaneous Slices


16 slice scanners collect 16 simultaneous channels of data

16-Slice Scanners Collect 16 Simultaneous Channels of Data

X-ray Tube Focal Spot

X-ray Beam Collimator

Detector

16 DAS channels


Detector27

64 x 0.625 mm

40 mm

40 x 0.625 mm

6 x 1.25

mm

6 x 1.25

mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

A:

B:


Detector28

32 mm

64 x 0.5 mm

4 x 1.2

mm

4 x 1.2

mm

29 mm

Detector

c. 2004 Multislice Scanners

C:

D:

32 x 0.6 mm


Increasing table speed in helical ct3

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

1

2

3

4,1

180

4DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0


Increasing table speed in helical ct4

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

1

2

3

4,1

180

4DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0


Increasing table speed in helical ct5

1

2

3

4

180

q

z (mm)

0

@3x

@6x

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

1

2

3

4,1

180

4DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0

1

2

3

4


Increasing table speed in helical ct6

180

q

z (mm)

0

Increasing Table Speed in Helical CT

1

2

3

4,1

180

4DCT:

3x table speed

q

z (mm)

0

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

4DCT:

6x table speed


Helical pitch8

table travel per rotation (mm)

Pitch =

M • D (mm)

Helical Pitch

On a 4-slice scanner (M=4):

At pitch = 0.75, table travel per rotation is:

= 0.75 • 4 • D

= 3 • D

On an 8-slice scanner (M=8):

At pitch = 0.75, table travel per rotation is:

= 0.75 • 8 • D

= 6 • D


Helical multi slice mode2

Helical Multi-slice Mode

Rule of Thumb:

• 1DCT Pitch 1 4DCT Pitch 0.75

• 1DCT Pitch 2 4DCT Pitch 1.5


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