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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'POWER AND POWER FACTOR ' - lanza

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Impedance (Ohm)

- Impedance is a ratio between voltage and current
- Unit of impendance is Ohm and simbolized by Z

Series Impedance

Pararel Impedance

The Operation is same with Resistant

Resistance

- The angle between current and voltage are in phase

Phasor Diagram for Impedance and Current-Voltage Relationship

Resitive-Inductive Load Relationship

Current Flow ….. Relationship

EXAMPLE !!!

Power Relationship

There are three component of Power :

1. S = Complex Power (VA)

S = V.I*

2. P = Real/Active Power (Watt)

P = V x I* x PF (cos phi)

3. Q = Reactive Power (Var)

Q = V x I* x sin phi

Phasor Diagram Relationship

Power Factor (PF) is ratio between Real Power (P) to Complex Power (S)

Pinalty PLN (Electrical Company)

Cos = 0,85

The angle () = 31,7o

Q (kVAr) Relationship

S (kVA)

Cos = 0,85

P (kW)

Perhitungan hubungan faktor daya 0,85 (Pinalti PLN) dengan biaya kVArh adalah sebagai berikut :- Jika cos = 0,85
- Maka Q = 0,6197 P
- Artinya Jumlah maksimum kVArh adalah 0,6197 besar kWh
- Jika Jumlah kVArh lebih dari 0,6197 kWh,
- Maka kelebihan kVArh harus dibayar oleh konsumen

Example --- Electrical Bill : Relationship

If sum of our total energy (kWh) consume (LWBP + WBP) are 1000 kWh, so the totals kVArh permitted :

0,6197 x 1000 = 619,7 kVArh

Impact of Power Factor Relationship

Lower Power Factor cause negative impact, there are :

- Increase Line Losses (I2R).
- Decrease system efficiency.
- Increase abondement cost
- Increase Electrical Bill (cost) --- if get pinalty
- Need to increase the capacity of equipment (Trafo) --- increase investation cost

Example of Impact lower PF Relationship

Decrease Maximum Capacity Load

Contoh

Power Contract (VA) = 1000 VA

- Lamp 100 Watt, PF = 0,5
- Lamp 100 Watt, PF= 1

- Number of lamps a) can be install is : Relationship
- S (VA) lamp a) = 100 W/ 0,5 = 200 VA
- Number of lamps = Langganan VA / S
- Number of lamps = 1000 VA / 200 VA = 5 lamps

- Number of lamps b) can be install is
- S (VA) lamp b) = 100 W/ 1 = 100 VA
- Number of lamps = Langganan VA / S
- Number of lamps = 1000 VA / 100 VA = 10 lamps

Equipment to Increase Power Factor is Relationship

Capasitor Bank/Power Factor Correction

Capacitor Instalation Circuit Relationship

Example Relationship

cont’d Relationship

- If PF need to become 0,95