Power and power factor
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POWER AND POWER FACTOR. Impedance (Ohm). Impedance is a ratio between voltage and current Unit of impendance is Ohm and simbolized by Z. Series Impedance Pararel Impedance. The Operation is same with Resistant. Resistance. The angle between current and voltage are in phase. Inductance.

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POWER AND POWER FACTOR

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Power and power factor

POWER AND POWER FACTOR


Impedance ohm

Impedance (Ohm)

  • Impedance is a ratio between voltage and current

  • Unit of impendance is Ohm and simbolized by Z

Series Impedance

Pararel Impedance

The Operation is same with Resistant


Resistance

Resistance

  • The angle between current and voltage are in phase


Inductance

Inductance


Capacitance

Capacitance


Phasor diagram for impedance and current voltage relationship

Phasor Diagram for Impedance and Current-Voltage Relationship


Resitive inductive load

Resitive-Inductive Load


Current flow

Current Flow …..

EXAMPLE !!!


Power and power factor

Power

There are three component of Power :

1. S = Complex Power (VA)

S = V.I*

2. P = Real/Active Power (Watt)

P = V x I* x PF (cos phi)

3. Q = Reactive Power (Var)

Q = V x I* x sin phi


Power and power factor

Phasor Diagram for Three Component of Power Relationship :


Power and power factor

Resitive-Inductive Load

=

dari data diatas diketahui :

Tegangan = V

Impedansi = Z = =


Power and power factor

Phasor Diagram

Power Factor (PF) is ratio between Real Power (P) to Complex Power (S)

Pinalty PLN (Electrical Company)

Cos  = 0,85

The angle () = 31,7o


Perhitungan hubungan faktor daya 0 85 pinalti pln dengan biaya kvarh adalah sebagai berikut

Q (kVAr)

S (kVA)

Cos  = 0,85

P (kW)

Perhitungan hubungan faktor daya 0,85 (Pinalti PLN) dengan biaya kVArh adalah sebagai berikut :

  • Jika cos  = 0,85

  • Maka Q = 0,6197 P

  • Artinya Jumlah maksimum kVArh adalah 0,6197 besar kWh

  • Jika Jumlah kVArh lebih dari 0,6197 kWh,

  • Maka kelebihan kVArh harus dibayar oleh konsumen


Power and power factor

Example --- Electrical Bill :

If sum of our total energy (kWh) consume (LWBP + WBP) are 1000 kWh, so the totals kVArh permitted :

0,6197 x 1000 = 619,7 kVArh


Impact of power factor

Impact of Power Factor

Lower Power Factor cause negative impact, there are :

  • Increase Line Losses (I2R).

  • Decrease system efficiency.

  • Increase abondement cost

  • Increase Electrical Bill (cost) --- if get pinalty

  • Need to increase the capacity of equipment (Trafo) --- increase investation cost


Example of impact lower pf

Example of Impact lower PF

Decrease Maximum Capacity Load

Contoh

Power Contract (VA) = 1000 VA

  • Lamp 100 Watt, PF = 0,5

  • Lamp 100 Watt, PF= 1


Power and power factor

  • Number of lamps a) can be install is :

    • S (VA) lamp a) = 100 W/ 0,5 = 200 VA

    • Number of lamps = Langganan VA / S

    • Number of lamps = 1000 VA / 200 VA = 5 lamps

  • Number of lamps b) can be install is

    • S (VA) lamp b) = 100 W/ 1 = 100 VA

    • Number of lamps = Langganan VA / S

    • Number of lamps = 1000 VA / 100 VA = 10 lamps


Equipment to increase power factor is

Equipment to Increase Power Factor is

Capasitor Bank/Power Factor Correction


Power and power factor

Capacitor Instalation Circuit


Example

Example


Cont d

cont’d

  • If PF need to become 0,95


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