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POWER AND POWER FACTOR

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POWER AND POWER FACTOR

- Impedance is a ratio between voltage and current
- Unit of impendance is Ohm and simbolized by Z

Series Impedance

Pararel Impedance

The Operation is same with Resistant

- The angle between current and voltage are in phase

EXAMPLE !!!

Power

There are three component of Power :

1. S = Complex Power (VA)

S = V.I*

2. P = Real/Active Power (Watt)

P = V x I* x PF (cos phi)

3. Q = Reactive Power (Var)

Q = V x I* x sin phi

Phasor Diagram for Three Component of Power Relationship :

Resitive-Inductive Load

=

dari data diatas diketahui :

Tegangan = V

Impedansi = Z = =

Phasor Diagram

Power Factor (PF) is ratio between Real Power (P) to Complex Power (S)

Pinalty PLN (Electrical Company)

Cos = 0,85

The angle () = 31,7o

Q (kVAr)

S (kVA)

Cos = 0,85

P (kW)

- Jika cos = 0,85
- Maka Q = 0,6197 P
- Artinya Jumlah maksimum kVArh adalah 0,6197 besar kWh
- Jika Jumlah kVArh lebih dari 0,6197 kWh,
- Maka kelebihan kVArh harus dibayar oleh konsumen

Example --- Electrical Bill :

If sum of our total energy (kWh) consume (LWBP + WBP) are 1000 kWh, so the totals kVArh permitted :

0,6197 x 1000 = 619,7 kVArh

Lower Power Factor cause negative impact, there are :

- Increase Line Losses (I2R).
- Decrease system efficiency.
- Increase abondement cost
- Increase Electrical Bill (cost) --- if get pinalty
- Need to increase the capacity of equipment (Trafo) --- increase investation cost

Decrease Maximum Capacity Load

Contoh

Power Contract (VA) = 1000 VA

- Lamp 100 Watt, PF = 0,5
- Lamp 100 Watt, PF= 1

- Number of lamps a) can be install is :
- S (VA) lamp a) = 100 W/ 0,5 = 200 VA
- Number of lamps = Langganan VA / S
- Number of lamps = 1000 VA / 200 VA = 5 lamps

- Number of lamps b) can be install is
- S (VA) lamp b) = 100 W/ 1 = 100 VA
- Number of lamps = Langganan VA / S
- Number of lamps = 1000 VA / 100 VA = 10 lamps

Capasitor Bank/Power Factor Correction

Capacitor Instalation Circuit

- If PF need to become 0,95