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Mobile Agents for Adaptive Routing. Presented by Hong-Jiun Chen & Manu Prasanna. Gianni Di Caro & Marco Dorigo. Hong-Jiun. Manu. Outline. Introduction Overview of Routing Algorithms Communication Network Model AntNet Other Routing Algorithms

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Mobile agents for adaptive routing
Mobile Agents for Adaptive Routing

Presented by Hong-Jiun Chen

& Manu Prasanna

Gianni Di Caro & Marco Dorigo


Outline

Hong-Jiun

Manu

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Routing Algorithms

  • Communication Network Model

  • AntNet

  • Other Routing Algorithms

  • Experiment Settings

  • Experiment Results

  • Conclusion


Introduction

I’m Real Ant

Introduction

  • AntNet


Introduction1
Introduction paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • AntNet

  • A new routing algorithm for telecommunication networks

  • An adaptive, distributed, mobile-agents-based algorithm

  • Apply it in a datagram network


Introduction2
Introduction paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Terminology

  • Routing

  • Throughput

  • Delay (Latency)


Introduction3
Introduction paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Routing

  • It refers to the activity of building forwarding tables, one for each node in the network, which tell incoming data which link to use to continue their travel towards the destination node.


Introduction4
Introduction paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Throughput

  • It is the number of bits which the network is able to carry in a given period of time


Introduction5
Introduction paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Delay (latency)

  • Propagation delay

  • Queuing delay

  • Processing delay

  • Transmission delay: The time elapsed from the moment the first bit of the message is transmitted till the last bit of the message is transmitted


Outline1
Outline paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Routing Algorithms

  • Communication Network Model

  • AntNet

  • Other Routing Algorithms

  • Experiment Settings

  • Experiment Results

  • Conclusion


Routing algorithm
Routing Algorithm paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Goal

  • To direct traffic from sources to destinations

  • Network performance 

  • Costs


Routing algorithm1
Routing Algorithm paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • The performance metrics:

    • throughput (bits/second)

    • delay (second)

  • Static or Adaptive?


Outline2
Outline paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Routing Algorithms

  • Communication Network Model

  • AntNet

  • Other Routing Algorithms

  • Experiment Settings

  • Experiment Results

  • Conclusion


Communication network model
Communication paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other antsNetwork Model

  • Apply on datagram networks without concerning congestion and admission control

  • FIFO

  • When links resources are available, they are reserved and the transfer is set up

  • The time it takes a packet from one node to another depends on its size and the link transmission characteristics

  • No ACK


Outline3
Outline paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Routing Algorithms

  • Communication Network Model

  • AntNet

  • Other Routing Algorithms

  • Experiment Settings

  • Experiment Results

  • Conclusion


Antnet

2 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

1

I’m Forward Ant

AntNet

  • 1. Forward antFsd is launched

Describe it by 6 simple steps:

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Antnet1

2 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 2. Ssd (k) is inserted, time elapsed is stored in stack

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Antnet2

3 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 2.keep it going to next hop

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Antnet3

5 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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  • 3.A circle is detected

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Antnet4

4 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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  • 3.A circle detected, delete all the nodes in that circle from the stack

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Antnet5

3 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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  • 3. Start over from the last node without circles

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Antnet6

4 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 4. Destination node reached

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Antnet7

I’m Backward Ant paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 4. Destination node reached, the ant Fsd generates another backward antBds

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Antnet8

1 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 5. Backward ant pops its stack to know the next hop node

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Antnet9

2 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 5. Backward ant pops its stack to know the next hop node

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Antnet10

3 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 5. Backward ant pops its stack to know the next hop node

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Antnet11

4 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 5. Backward ant pops its stack to know the next hop node

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Antnet12

4 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 6. Whenever the Backward ant arrives a node, it updates 2 things:

  • 1. A List Trip(i , i2)

  • 2. The Routing Table

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Antnet13

4 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 1. Change A List Trip(i , i2)

  • It estimates arithmetic mean values i and associated variances i2 for trip times from the node itself to all the nodes i in the network

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Antnet14

4 paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

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AntNet

  • 2. Change The Routing Table

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Outline4

Manu paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Routing Algorithms

  • Communication Network Model

  • AntNet

  • Other Routing Algorithms

  • Experiment Settings

  • Experiment Results

  • Conclusion


Other routing algorithms
Other Routing Algorithms paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants


Outline5
Outline paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Routing Algorithms

  • Communication Network Model

  • AntNet

  • Other Routing Algorithms

  • Experiment Settings

  • Experiment Results

  • Conclusion


Experimental settings
Experimental Settings paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Topology and Physical properties

  • NFSNET with 14 nodes and 21 links

  • Bandwidth of links = 1.5Mbit/s

  • Link/node fault probability = 0

  • Local buffer capacity = 1GB

  • Statistical multiplexing


Experimental settings1
Experimental Settings paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

  • Traffic Patterns

  • Static Model

    • Constant bit rate

  • Dynamic Model

    • Variable bit rate


  • Experimental settings2
    Experimental Settings paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • Geographical Distribution of Traffic

    • Uniform-deterministic distribution

    • Uniform-random distribution

    • Uniform-deterministic-hot-spots

    • Uniform-random-hot-spots


    Outline6
    Outline paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • Introduction

    • Overview of Routing Algorithms

    • Communication Network Model

    • AntNet

    • Other Routing Algorithms

    • Experiment Settings

    • Experiment Results

    • Conclusion


    Experimental results
    Experimental Results paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • Performance of all algorithms near optimal for low and uniform traffic loads

    • AntNet especially good in CBR case

    • AntNet algorithm shows overall best performance

    • Daemon algorithm (used for comparisons)


    Outline7
    Outline paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • Introduction

    • Overview of Routing Algorithms

    • Communication Network Model

    • AntNet

    • Other Routing Algorithms

    • Experiment Settings

    • Experiment Results

    • Conclusion


    Conclusion
    Conclusion paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • AntNet shows a robust behavior

    • Reaction time of algorithm is acceptable

    • Impact on network resources is neglectable


    Strengths and possible weaknesses

    Strengths paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    Possible Weaknesses

    Strengths and Possible Weaknesses

    • Good idea

    • Nice buildup

    • Time tested idea (ants have been around for sometime… 80 million years)

    • Scalability issues are ignored

    • Setup costs and time?

    • Feasibility for wireless networks?


    New ideas
    New Ideas paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • The term is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as The process by which the results of an insects activity act as a stimulus to further activity, and is used in the mobile robotics literature to describe activity in which an agent supplies changes to the world architecting its future behavior, usually in a useful way

    AntNet: new algorithm for adaptive routing

    • Stigmergy


    Relevance to ies
    Relevance to IES paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • If the goal of AI/Robotics is to make machines as intelligent as humans we should first start with imitating lesser intelligent animals (eg: ants)

    • Social behavior, community behavior, cooperation among ants/bees can be applied easily in robotics


    The ants a community of microrobots
    The Ants: A Community of Microrobots paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • Source: MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab

    • Goals

      • push the limits of microrobotics by integrating many sensors and actuators into a small package

      • form a structured robotic community from the interactions of many simple individuals


    The Ants: A Community of Microrobots paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants


    The ants a community of microrobots1
    The Ants: A Community of Microrobots paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants

    • Community behavior:

      • Clustering around food


    Questions
    Questions? paths by using only the pheromone trail deposited by other ants


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