Leach module
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LEACH module. 林政龍. Outline. Introduction LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) Installation LEACH module. WSN (wireless sensor network). Sensor node 的能力 Sensing Process communication Sensor node 的特色 量多 ( hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes ), 體積小 , 夠便宜 電池供電 衍生問題

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LEACH module

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Leach module

LEACH module

林政龍


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)

  • Installation

  • LEACH module


Wsn wireless sensor network

WSN (wireless sensor network)

  • Sensor node的能力

    • Sensing

    • Process

    • communication

  • Sensor node的特色

    • 量多(hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes), 體積小, 夠便宜

    • 電池供電

  • 衍生問題

    • 很難各別去置換sensor或是它的電池

    • power conservation is a critical design issue for routing protocol.


Leach module

能量消耗模組


Problem of en ergy consumption

Problem of energy consumption

Sensor node

Base station


Problem of en ergy consumption cont

Problem of energy consumption (cont.)

Sensor node

Base station


Leach low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy

LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)

  • Employs randomized rotation of the cluster-heads to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensor nodes in the network


Leach

LEACH的圖解


Leach cont

LEACH (cont.)

  • The operation is divided into rounds.

  • Each of these rounds consists of 2 phases: a set-up phase and a steady-state phase.

  • During the set-up phase cluster-heads are determined and the clusters are organized.

  • During the steady-state phase data trans-ference to the base station occurs.


Leach cont1

Cluster-head election process : (the same as LEACH)

A sensor determines whether to become a cluster

head by generating a random number

and compare this value with a threshold

A node becomes a cluster head if the random number

is less than a threshold

LEACH (cont.)

P,the desired percentage to become a cluster-head;

the set of nodes that have not being selected as a cluster-head in the last 1/P rounds.

r,the current round


Leach cont2

LEACH (cont.)

  • 形成cluster後,cluster-head會排定TDMA schedule給屬於相同cluster的non-cluster傳輸的時槽(time slot),已決定每個non-cluster傳輸時間

  • 等待cluster-head收集完non-cluster的資料後,便將資料傳給BS

  • ㄧ開始cluster-head發送adv.給所有的sensor nodes 與sensor nodes 加入某個cluster是利用CSMA機制,之後non-cluster傳輸資料給cluster或是cluster收集完資料,再將資料傳送給BS,都是利用CDMA的機制去傳輸資料


Leach flow chart

LEACH的flow chart


Installation

Installation

  • http://www.internetworkflow.com/downloads/ns2leach/


Leach module1

LEACH module


Mobile node

Mobile node

cmu-trace.cc

mac-sensor-timer.cc

mac-sensor.cc

wireless-phy.cc


Resource adaptive node

Resource-Adaptive node

rcagent.cc

resource.cc

ns-ranode.tcl

rca-all.cc

energy.cc


Leach1

LEACH程式結構

Leach主程式

執行

Wireless.tcl

Leach.tcl

ns-leach.tcl

設定參數

uamps.tcl

執行base station的功能

ns-ranode.tcl

ns-bsapp.tcl

ns-resource-manager.tcl

extras.tcl

ns-energy-resource.tcl

stats.tcl

ns-neighbor-resource.tcl

Resource Adaptive Node

統計產生檔案


Reference

Reference

  • http://nslab.ee.ntu.edu.tw/NetworkSeminar/slides/EDACH.ppt

  • http://www.internetworkflow.com/resources/ns2leach.pdf

  • http://www.internetworkflow.com/downloads/ns2leach/


Final project

Final project


Act adaptive colored threshold

ACT : Adaptive Colored Threshold


Act scheme

ACT scheme

  • 提出了temporal suppression與spatial suppression兩種抑制傳輸,目的是為了達到energy efficient,但省energy卻會造成傳回給BS的資料有精確性的問題,所以又提出α值來使誤差降至最低


Temporal spatial sensor node

Temporal 與Spatial 圖解(sensor node端)


Leach module

α的選定

  • 為了使誤差降至最低,因此,提出了下列公式,來選定α為最小誤差值

  • SV為sensor node的前一輪的感測值

  • dj為cluster-head目前的感測值

  • di為sensor node目前的感測值


Leach module

流程圖


Temporal spatial bs 1

Temporal 與 Spatial (BS端) (1)

  • 若sensor node並未達到suppression的條件,會將完整的感測值傳回給BS,因此,BS可以得到正確的感測資料,便不需要執行估計的程序,反之,若BS未得到sensor node的感測值,就必須根據下列公式來估計其sensor node的感測值 :


Temporal spatial bs 2

Temporal 與 Spatial (BS端) (2)

  • SV為temporal的估計值,將直接採用sensor node最後傳給BS的感測值當估計值

  • 為spatial的估計值,利用線性方程式 求得斜率m與截距b後,再使用兩點內插法或外插法來求得估計值


Simulation

Simulation

  • 環境

    • NS2

    • field of 100 * 100

    • base station (50 , 170)

    • initial battery capacity of 2 Joules


Metrics

metrics


Result heat source module

Result (heat source module)


Result heat oscillation module

Result (heat oscillation module)


Result wave front module

Result (wave front module)


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • proposed the Adaptive Color Threshold (ACT) scheme to provide priority treatments to enhance the efficiency of redundancy suppression

  • 利用α、temporal及spatial的機制來提升sensor node被抑制感測值的精確度


Thank you

Thank you


Introduction teen

Introduction TEEN

  • TEEN : Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol

    • Good for time-critical applications

    • This sensor network model likes LEACH uses a hierarchical clustering scheme

    • Cluster headers broadcast:

      • Hard Threshold

        • This is a threshold value for the sensed attribute

      • Soft Threshold

        • This is a small change in the value of the sensed attribute which triggers the node to switch on its transmitter and transmit


Hierarchical clustering scheme

hierarchical clustering scheme


Leach module

TEEN的運作示意圖


Leach and teen

LEACH and TEEN

  • LEACH

    • Abstract: Reelect Cluster head (CH) each round

      • Advantage: Load balance

      • Disadvantage: Data Redundancy

  • TEEN

    • Abstract: Hard and soft threshold

      • Advantage: Reduce similar data to transmit at each node

      • Disadvantage:

        • Thresholds are fixed

        • 無法得知node存亡

        • 沒有考慮環境的變化,資料重要性相同


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