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Emulsion Readout - Present and Future-. Toshiyuki Nakano 2008.1.24 Emulsion Workshop, Nagoya, Japan. 10 m m. 100 mm. 125 mm. Nuclear Emulsion Film. ・ Very high spatial resolution. ・ Possible to record MIP’s tracks. “OPERA film” is uniform, refreshable and mass producible.

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slide1

Emulsion Readout-Present and Future-

Toshiyuki Nakano

2008.1.24

Emulsion Workshop, Nagoya, Japan

nuclear emulsion film

10mm

100mm

125mm

Nuclear Emulsion Film

・ Very high spatial resolution. ・ Possible to record MIP’s tracks

“OPERA film” is uniform, refreshable and mass producible.

~100,000m2 are used in OPERA

Protection coat:1mm

Emulsion:44mm

乾板断面図

(電顕写真)

Cross section

Film base:205mm

(TAC)

Emulsion:44mm

slide3

Digitizing Nuclear Emulsion Films

  • 4×1012pixel information in 1 film
      • (in 100×100cm2, double side coat)

Image

sensor

Resolution :         512x512 pixels

FOV : 

160x160mm2

Eff. Pixel size :

~0.3mm 

Microscope

Z-axis

Image

sensor

Objective lens : 50x

 ~3mm DOF (effective)

Emulsion (topside)

typ. 45-100 mm

Film base

 200-800 mm

Nuclear emulsion film

160mm

Emulsion (backside)

Typ. 45-100 mm 

Grain Density ~15 (/45mm), FOG>3000 grain(/view)

slide4

Repeats in angle space

  • Take 16 tomographic images by microscope optics.
  • Shift images to aim at specific angle tracks
  • Sum up 16 images to examine coincidence.
  • Find signal of tracks.

Invented by K.Niwa in 1974

slide5

Early Track Selector

in 1985

Established by S.Aoki

Ref . The Fully Automated Emulsion Analysis System. S. Aoki et al.

Published in Nucl.Instrum.Meth.B51:466-472,1990.

slide6

TS

0.0025 cm2/h

slide7

NTS

    • ~0.08 cm2/h
slide8

UTS

    • 1 cm2/h
evolution of the scanning power
Evolution of the Scanning Power

Speed in cm2/h

CHORUS

DONUT

OPERA

Our code name (device technology)

slide10

Follow ShotOptics

The 1st SUTS (20cm2/h)

no step and repeat image taking
No step and repeat image taking

Use Ultra High Speed Camera

Up to 3k frames per second. Max 90views/sec ~60cm2/h (@50x)

Image taking by follow shot

No step and repeat operation can avoid a mechanical bottleneck.

FOV displacement and Blur are canceled by moving objective lens

Optimizing Field of View

120mm×90mm -> 140mm×140mm or more

Overcome the Bottle necks of the image acquisition

slide12

Sub-pixel Accuracy

High resonant frequency (fres>2kHz)

D~16.4mm, W~13g

Optics Driven by Piezo

slide13

Real-time Image Filtering and Packing Processor

FIR filters

Spatial filter and Pixel Packing

Ring frame buffers

Arrange readout segments to lines

LVDS Camera Interface

Camera In

LVDS Output Interface

slide14

Internal Band width ~40Gbyte/s/FPGA

×11

SUTS

Track recognition board

Processing speed : >80cm2/h/board

slide15

SRAM

SRAM

SRAM

SRAM

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

SRAM

SRAM

SRAM

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

PPC

From Camera

Image-Pre-Processor

Rocket IO 20

4Gbyte/sec

LVDS(3+1)2

240Mbyte/sec

(2.5 msec/view)

Local Control BUS

MASTER FPGA

Reordering Packed Image

Controlling Slaves

Host interface

Block SRAM

High band width and Fine Granularity

21.6GByte/sec or more

32bit Bi-directional FIFO

SLAVE FPGAs

 Calculating Overlayed Image

0.125msec/view/angle/FPGA

Power PC 405 2

Control and Clustering

S-UTS Track Recognition Block diagram (revised)

s uts data flow
S-UTS data flow

150~

300MB/s

1.3GB/s

High Speed Camera

3,000 frame/s

Front end image processor

Zero suppression, pixel packing

Track recognition

2~10MB/s

PC

PC

~0.1MB/s

2~10MB/s

Data

Base

Raw

data

Temporary storage

Alignment and

Connect tracks

Physics Analysis

slide17

Vector Information : POS,ANG,DARK

Pos. reprod. : (15 mrad)

Ang. reprod. : (0.6 micron)

Outputs of S-UTS ~ 140 Million tracks

10cm

12.5cm

slide20

Reproducibility of Base Track Angle

2.1mrad/2

3.7mrad/2

slide22

Recoverable

Simulated by scanning twice and combining

Efficiency @50views/sec, ×28 objective lens

Limited by processing power

Under tuning

SUTS-3

121cm2/h

slide24

Prospects for improvements of SUTS

  • Enlarging FOV
    • 28x is under tuning. 121cm2/h will be possible.
  • Shorten repetition time
    • 50views/s w 35x, 60view/s w 50x. Imager accept up to 90views/s.
  • Bidirectional scanning to increase effective speed.
    • 8 sec/line to scan, 3 sec to return back to the next line. 55cm2/h : 72cm2/h h ~76%

A factor of 2-3 improvement is expected

evolution of the suts
Evolution of the SUTS

Speed in cm2/h

In tuning phase

In practical use

VERSION of SUTS

slide27

Pricing varies depending upon specifications and options ordered, but ranges between $3.5M and $4M

The EX-F1 will be available from March 2008 priced at $999.99.

1film/min

slide28

IC-Stepper (Lithographic system)

Resolution 350nm or better

NA 0.63

Exposure light source i-line (365nm)

Reduction ratio 1:5

Exposure field 22mm square to 17.9 (H)  25.2 (V)mm

Alignment accuracy 40nm or better 

It is possible, by stepping only 56 times, to cover entire sheet with enough resolution.

slide29

Giga Pixel Imaging System

  • Requirements
  • Total number of pixels should be ten to the ninth power
    • To cover 20mm20mm in 0.5mm pitch, it needs 40k40k pixels.
  • The frame rate should be 12fps in average.
    • Pixel rate becomes ~20Gpixels/sec

It is possible by employing a mosaic imager

slide30

Giga Pixel Imaging System (2)

  • IMX017CQE (SONY) is a good candidate of this purpose
    • Pixel size 2.5mm
    • Resolution 2880×2160
    • Frame rate   60fps
    • Pixel rate 373Mpixel/s

is priced at $999.99

slide31

Speed and Coverage of Mosaic Imager

Effective FOV 21.55×20.9 mm2×0.28 (1450×1100mm2×80)

Effective pixel size 0.5mm

Repetition time 1.5 sec /16depth/fullarea (4 steps/view)

Max. scan speed 12000cm2/h (150cm2/h×80)

20mm

slide32

Possibility of track recognition part

  • An SUTS processor can perform ~100cm2/h
    •  Its is possible, with ~120 boards, to process emulsion images taken by this optics.
  • According to Moore’s law, we can expected much better computing technology, which is lower cost, smaller profile and low power consumption.
    • SUTS processor is based on 0.13um process. Since 0.065um process is popular now, ¼ foot print and 2 times faster speed a unit will be possible.

It’s NOT a problem.

slide33

Summary

  •  A scanning speed of ~72cm2/h has been achieved in practical use. 121cm2/h version is under tuning phase.
  • It is possible, with the popular technologies, to achieve a scanning speed up to 1 film per minute.
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