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The Skeletal System. Medical Terminology. Key System Terminology. Bone -------------------------- oste/o Bone marrow ---------------myel/o Note myel/o also means spine Joints ----------------------- arthr/o Cartilage ------------------- chondr/o Bursa ----------------------- burs/o.

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The skeletal system

The Skeletal System

Medical Terminology


Key system terminology
Key System Terminology

  • Bone -------------------------- oste/o

  • Bone marrow ---------------myel/o

    • Note myel/o also means spine

  • Joints ----------------------- arthr/o

  • Cartilage ------------------- chondr/o

  • Bursa ----------------------- burs/o


  • Bone anatomy

    Diaphysis

    Medullary cavity

    Yellow marrow

    Epiphysis

    Red marrow

    Compact bone

    Lamellar bone

    Spongy bone

    Trabecular bone

    Periosteum

    Endosteum

    Articular cartilage

    Epiphyseal plate

    Ligament – connects bone to bone

    Tendon

    Bone Anatomy


    Axial skeleton

    80 bones

    Skull

    Spine

    Thoracic cage

    Appendicular skeleton

    126 bones

    Shoulder girdle + arm

    Hip girdle + leg

    206 bones


    Cranium

    Frontal

    Parietal

    Occipital

    Temporal

    Sphenoid

    Ethmoid

    Face

    Zygomatic

    Maxillary

    Mandible

    Palatine

    Lacrimal

    Vomer

    Hyoid Bone


    Ribs (rib = costal) [12 pairs]

    True (7)

    False (3)

    Floating (2)

    Sternum

    Manubrium

    Body

    Xiphoid

    Shoulder

    Clavicle

    Scapula

    Acromion Process

    Arm

    Humerus

    Radius

    Ulna ( & olecranon process)

    Wrist & Hand

    Carpals

    Metacarpals

    Phalanges


    Spine

    Vertebrae

    Cervical (7)

    Thoracic (12)

    Lumbar (5)

    Sacrum (5)

    Coccyx (4)

    Intervertebral Discs

    Pelvic Girdle (hip/ Coxa)

    Ilium

    Ischium

    Pubis

    Sacrum

    Acetabulum


    Legs

    Femur

    Patella

    Tibia

    Fibula

    Ankle & Foot

    Tarsals

    Talus

    Calcaneus

    Lateral & Medial Malleolus

    Metatarsals

    Phalanges


    Skeletal system structures in medical terminology
    Skeletal System Structures in Medical Terminology

    • Oste/o = bone

    • Chondr/o = cartilage

    • Arthr/o = joints

    • Myel/o = bone marrow

      • Note: also can mean spine

  • Burs/o = bursa

  • Cost/o = rib


  • Joints articulations

    Functional classification based upon movement:

    immovable = synarthrosis

    slightly movable = amphiarthrosis

    freely movable = diarthrosis

    Most are diarthrosis

    Also called synovial joints

    Joints (Articulations)

    • Joints

    • Synovial Membrane

    • Synovial Fluid

    • Bursa

    • Articulations

    • Ligaments

      • (compare to tendons)


    Bursa

    A sac made up of:

    Synovial membrane

    Synovial fluid


    Medical specialists of the skeletal system
    Medical Specialists of the Skeletal System

    • Orthopedist

      • Those with a medical school degree

      • Those with a osteopathic school degree

    • Chiropracter

      • All diseases center around spinal mal-alignment

  • Podiatrist

  • Orthotics


  • Pathology of the skeletal system

    Ankylosis (ankyl/o = stiff; bent)

    Arthralgia

    Arthrosclerosis

    Bursitis

    Chondroma

    Chondromalacia (-malacia= abnormal softening)

    Hallux valgus (bunion; big toe bent towards other toes)

    Luxation

    Synovitis

    Arthritis

    Osteoarthritis

    Rheumatoid arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (spondyl = vertebrae)

    This is a type of rheumatoid arthritis

    Talipes (club foot)

    Pathology of the Skeletal System


    Pathology of the skeletal system1
    Pathology of the Skeletal System

    Spine

    • Herniated disc

    • Lumbago

    • Spina bifida

    • Kyphosis

    • Lordosis

    • Scoliosis


    Scoliosis kyphosis lordosis
    ScoliosisKyphosisLordosis


    Pathology of the skeletal system2

    Bone

    Exostosis (callus)

    Osteomalacia

    Osteitis deformans

    Periostitis

    Osteochondroma

    Osteoporosis

    Fractures

    Closed (simple)

    Open (compound)

    Colles’

    Pathology of the Skeletal System


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