Plant Biotechnology
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Plant Biotechnology

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Motivation for genetically engineered crops. Agriculture is the biggest industrial sector in the world$1.3 trillion of products/yearOver past 40 years, world population has doubled while agricultural land area has increased by only 10%. Plant transgenics. Transfer of genes to plants directly accelerates selective breeding practices used in the past.Cotton fiber strength increased 1.5% per year through conventional breedingIncreased 60% by inserting a single gene into the plantCorn and soyb29841
Plant Biotechnology

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1. Plant Biotechnology Chapter 6

2. Motivation for genetically engineered crops Agriculture is the biggest industrial sector in the world $1.3 trillion of products/year Over past 40 years, world population has doubled while agricultural land area has increased by only 10%

3. Plant transgenics Transfer of genes to plants directly accelerates selective breeding practices used in the past. Cotton fiber strength increased 1.5% per year through conventional breeding Increased 60% by inserting a single gene into the plant Corn and soybean have been targets of much genetic engineering

4. Cloning Many types of plants can regenerate from a single cell, similar to a bacterium. The resulting plant is a clone or replica of plant from which original cell was taken. Protoplast fusion Introducing a gene into a ?denuded? plant cell and generating a new plant Genetic engineering techniques applied to plants

6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector for transferring foreign genes into plant chromosome This bacterium naturally infects plant cells causing cancerous growths - crown gall disease Infection (vir) genes carried on Ti plasmid Type of bacteria that infects plant cells, integrating into its DNA to ensure its survival causing crown gall disease in many ornamentals Two forms of DNA: 1)bacterial chromosome 2)Ti plasmid --transferred stretch of DNA ?T-DNA? (20 kb long) --vir (virulence) genes that direct infectionType of bacteria that infects plant cells, integrating into its DNA to ensure its survival causing crown gall disease in many ornamentals Two forms of DNA: 1)bacterial chromosome 2)Ti plasmid --transferred stretch of DNA ?T-DNA? (20 kb long) --vir (virulence) genes that direct infection

7. Infection Process Vir genes copy T-DNA Open channel in bacterial cell membrane for T-DNA to pass through T-DNA enters plant through wound, integrates itself into plant chromosome When infecting, vir genes Copy T-DNA Attach product to copied T-DNA Add proteins along length of T-DNA Open channel in bacterial cell membrane for T-DNA to pass through Then enters plant through wound, integrates itself into plant chromosome **Transformation: inserting foreign DNA into bacteria -- Removed tumor-inducing section of T-DNA, replace with transgene (between T-DNA border regions) When infecting, vir genes Copy T-DNA Attach product to copied T-DNA Add proteins along length of T-DNA Open channel in bacterial cell membrane for T-DNA to pass through Then enters plant through wound, integrates itself into plant chromosome **Transformation: inserting foreign DNA into bacteria -- Removed tumor-inducing section of T-DNA, replace with transgene (between T-DNA border regions)

8. Leaf fragment technique used to introduce foreign genes into plant Small discs are cut from plant leaf Discs are cultured to start a new plant Early in the regeneration process, the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a Ti plasmid is introduced into the culture The plasmid DNA combines with the plant chromosome Discs are treated with hormones to encourage shoot and root development and then the new plant is planted in the soil

10. Gene guns

11. Antisense technology Used to produce the Flavr-Savr tomato in 1994. Enzyme polygalacturonase breaks down structural polysaccharide pectin in wall of a plant. This is part of the natural decay process in a plant Monsanto identified the gene than encodes the enzyme and made another gene that blocked the production of the enzyme.

12. Antisense molecules -- Enzyme polyglacturonase (PG) digests pectin in the wall of the plant -- Identified gene that encodes PG, removed gene from plant cells, produced complementary copy -- Agrobacter as vector, transfer new gene into tomato cells -- Gene encodes an mRNA molecule (antisense) that unites with/inactivates normal mRNA (sense molecule) for PG production. -- Enzyme polyglacturonase (PG) digests pectin in the wall of the plant -- Identified gene that encodes PG, removed gene from plant cells, produced complementary copy -- Agrobacter as vector, transfer new gene into tomato cells -- Gene encodes an mRNA molecule (antisense) that unites with/inactivates normal mRNA (sense molecule) for PG production.

13. Plant vaccines Plants are susceptible to diseases caused by viruses (tobacco mosaic virus) Virus surface protein induces an immune response in the plant against the protein/virus Researchers inserted the virus protein into the plant genome using the Ti plasmid/ Agrobacter vector for insertion and expression in the plant

14. Concerns about genetically modified foods Human health Unsuspected allergens What other issues are there? Environment Messing up the gene pool of non-target species in the environment Lateral gene transfer Still poorly understood in nature

15. Summary Variety of techniques are available to introduce genes into plants and have the plants express the gene Such genetic engineering is used to Improve disease resistance Flavor of product Nutrition of product Shelf life of product Any other property of plant that improves its value


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