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Electronics. Dan Simon Cleveland State University ESC 120. Voltage. Voltage is the amount of work needed to move an electric charge High voltage in an electrical system is like high pressure in a hydraulic system

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Electronics

Electronics

Dan SimonCleveland State UniversityESC 120

Revised August 28, 2010


Voltage
Voltage

  • Voltage is the amount of work needed to move an electric charge

  • High voltage in an electrical system is like high pressure in a hydraulic system

  • Common outlets in the United States: 120 Volts, 60 Hertz, alternating current (AC)


Current
Current

  • Electric current: The flow of electric charge (electrons), measured in Amperes

  • One amp of current means a flow of one Coulomb (6.241 × 1018 electrons) per second

    • Amps = Coulombs / second

  • High current in an electrical system is like high rate of flow in a hydraulic system


Power
Power

  • Power: The rate at which current flows, measured in Watts

  • Power is the product of voltage and current

    • Watts = Volts × Amps

  • Typical power consumption

    • Air conditioner: 2000 W

    • Clock: 2 W

    • Television: 200 W

    • Light bulb: 100 W

Ohio’s average electricity cost:

12 cents per kW-hr


Resistors
Resistors

A resistor reduces the rate of flow of electric current, measured in Ohms: V = IR

Example: If R1 > R2, then the current through R1 will be less than the current through R2


Resistor combinations
Resistor Combinations

Series:

R = R1 + R2

Parallel:

R = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2)


Potentiometer
Potentiometer

Trimpot Adjuster


Capacitors
Capacitors

Capacitors store electrical energy


Transistors
Transistors

Transistors can be used as electrically-controlled switches. The current through the transistor is proportional to the voltage applied to the base.


Diodes
Diodes

Diodes allow current to flow only in one direction.Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emit light.The long lead connects to the positive voltage.

Current flow



Breadboard

Internal connections in orange



Multimeter
Multimeter

Measures voltage, current, and resistance.

If you get unpredictable readings, check the battery!


Power supply
Power Supply

Regulated 5 Volt power supply: “wall wart”

You need to cut off the connector so that you can connect the bare wires to your breadboard


Breadboard
Breadboard

Breadboard with connector posts, ready for power supply connections


Led experiment
LED Experiment

Resistor value should be at least 400 ohms





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