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第四章 土壤水分、 空气、 热量状况 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第四章 土壤水分、 空气、 热量状况. 第一节 土壤水分. 一、土壤水的类型划分及 土壤水分含量的测定. 土壤水的重要性: 所有的水只有进入土壤转化为土壤水,才能被植物吸收利用。 土壤水是作物吸水的最主要来源 。 土壤水是土壤的最重要组成部分之一。 土壤水是土壤形成发育的催化剂; 土壤水并非纯水、而是稀薄的溶液。土壤水实际上是指在 105℃ 温度下从土壤中驱逐出来的水。. 土壤水分类型及有效性 土壤水分类型** 吸湿水 膜状水 毛管水

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第四章 土壤水分、 空气、 热量状况

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  • 105


**


1**


2**



3***


0.1-1mm

0.05-0.1mm

0.05-0.005mm

0.001mm


**



***



**


***

hcm)dmm


4**


**



m

%

v

V=m


1DW

DW=Vh

mm

2 m3

V/2/3Dw


A

10%

B

15%


  • SPAC (


m ***

0.

p***

0.

p=wghV


S***

g***

g 0.


t=m+p+s+g


***

T-m

m


Pa

1 Pa=0.0102

1 atm=1033=1.0133bar

1 bar=0.9896atm=1020

1 bar=100000 Pa


8


***


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

%



S


(available soil water)1-2150

150

10%


***

wilting point)



1

2

3

4





O2

CO2

N2

20.94

0.03

78.05

0.95

18.0-20.03

0.15-0.65

78.8-80.24

%


1CO2

2O2

3

4CH4


/cm

05-01

07-29

05-01

07-29

CO2

O2

CO2

O2

CO2

O2

CO2

O2

0

0.915

0.056

0.056

5

0.158

20.497

1.006

20.439

0.70

20.649

0.211

20.653

10

0.420

20.397

1.060

20.275

0.104

20.513

0.279

20.668

15

0.250

20.486

0.865

19.953

0.134

20.857

0.385

20.506

20

0.483

20.478

1.348

20.060

0.150

20.121

0.406

20.634

30

0.573

19.865

1.159

20.005

0.313

20.181

1.157

20.362

50

0.922

19.929

1.520

19.698

0.402

20.198

1.281

19.873

0.615

20.124

1.268

19.953

0.269

20.329

0.847

20.022

(%)


CO2O2

CO2CO2

CO2O2

CO2O219~22%


O2

CO2CO2,CO2O2CO2CO2.


4.9

:


soil air diffusion)

Fick

4.10

q[LT-1]

Ds[L2T-1]

C()[L3L3]

x [L]

(P) 4.11


(hPa)

(%)

(%)

K(m/s)

-9.8

40.24

14.06

12

-98

25.47

28.83

133

-310

23.07

31.23

272

0

54.30

682

DsDo

K( 1989)


2(soil air flux)

CO2O2 -2-1

(soil aeration)

1

1

2 CO2O2


3Eh

EhEh


1

2

3


1( )

2( )

3 ( )

4CO2( )

5( )

6( )

7( )

8 ( )

9Eh( )

10( )


(Soil heat)


a

I

H

E

1.9k/cm2/min

990.3-4.0


46.281096.99109KJ2050


IH

I+H


1

100

2


3

1

2

3

4


S = Q P LE + R

S

Q

L;

P

R


(soil heat capacity,soil thermal capacity)

1

C(mass heat capacity)Jg-1-1Cv(volume heat capacity) Jcm-3-1

Cv

Cv = mCvVm + oCvVo wCvVw+aCvVa (67)

Cv = 1.9Vm + 2.5Vo + 4.2Vw (Jcm-3 C-1) (68)


4-31


CCV

CV= rC (1)

CV=C (2)

C=CsMs + CwMw + CaMa (3)

Cs, Cw, CaMs, Mw, Ma(

Cv=CvsVs + CvwVw + CvaVa (4)

Vs, Vw, VaCvs, Cvw, Cva


(4)Cv(4)

CV=CvsVs +Cvw Vw (5)

(5)Vw=v()(1)

Cvs= rsCs (6)

rs=MS/VS= /VS

Vs= /rs (7)

(6)(7)(5)

Cv=Cs + Cvw v (8)

4.18J.cm3/0.85J/g/(8)

Cv=0.85+ 4.18 v (9)


(9)


:

:heat conductivity,thermal conductivity

1112J.cm-2.s-1.-1



11cm21cm3/

:

Cv


Soil temperature)




(

24


O2CO221%O285%O270%,CO260%


O2

7%~10%

Geisler 1969

14%

Geisler 1969

20%

Ammore,1961, Geisler 1969

10%

Tacket 1964

10%

Gill 1956

(Vol%)


1( )

2 ( )

3( )

4 ( )

5( )

6( )

7( )

8 ( )

9 ( )

10( )


Eh

1?

2 ?

3Eh?

4?


5??

6?

3?

4??

5??

6?

7?


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