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The Road to Revolution: (1770-1776). AP US HISTORY SOUTH LAUREL. Most English colonists were glad to be part of the British Empire. Life was good and the American colonies had the highest standard of living in the world!.

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The Road to Revolution: (1770-1776)

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The road to revolution 1770 1776

The Road

to Revolution:

(1770-1776)

AP US HISTORY

SOUTH LAUREL


The road to revolution 1770 1776

Most English colonists were glad to be part of the British Empire. Life was good and the American colonies had the highest standard of living in the world!

I CAN DESCRIBE SALUTARY NEGLECT AND WHAT IT MEANS TO THE CAUSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


Salutary neglect

Salutary neglect

  • Period of time between 1713-1763 where the colonies saw little/no intervention by England in colonial affairs

    • Sir Robert Walpole--believed colonies should be left alone; best for England

    • Colonies developed self-reliance and effective organization

    • 13 separate colonial governments emerged

    • Americans became used to managing their own affairs w/o government interference

I CAN DESCRIBE SALUTARY NEGLECT AND WHAT IT MEANS TO THE CAUSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


The road to revolution 1770 1776

  • American Revolutionary War is also known as the War for Independence, 1775-1783

    • We were 3000 miles away from England

“Distance weakens authority, great distance weakens authority greatly”


What is mercantilism

WHAT IS mercantilism

  • Belief that WEALTH was power

  • An economic system in which a “mother country” attempts to establish colonies for the benefit of the mother country

    • Mother country tries to sell more than it bought and keep all the money in the family

    • All European countries at this time used mercantilism

I CAN DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND ITS FOUR GOALS/PURPOSES


Goals purposes of mercantilism

Goals/purposes of mercantilism

  • Ensure British naval power

  • Colonies provide raw materials

  • Colonies a market for British goods

  • Keep all the money in the British Empire

I CAN DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND ITS FOUR GOALS/PURPOSES


The road to revolution 1770 1776

In order to ensure England’s wealth, all colonial purchases had to be purchased with “hard money”

I CAN DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND ITS FOUR GOALS/PURPOSES


Enumerated articles

Enumerated articles

  • Certain products (like tobacco) that were forbidden to be sold anywhere but to England

I CAN DEFINE WHAT ENUMERATED ARTICLES ARE


Navigation laws

Navigation laws

  • Navigation Law of 1650--laws passed to enforce the mercantilist system

    • First enacted in 1650

    • Goal was to stop Dutch shippers involved in American trade

    • Not enforced well early on

I CAN SUMMARIZE THE REASON AND EFFECTS OF THE NAVIGATION ACTS


The road to revolution 1770 1776

To avoid much of the parts of the Mercantilist system, colonists resort to smuggling

JOHN HANCOCK--#1 smuggler, “King of All Smugglers”, wealthy businessman

I CAN SUMMARIZE THE REASON AND EFFECTS OF THE NAVIGATION ACTS


The road to revolution 1770 1776

1763 marked a new era of relations between England and the colonies


George grenville

George grenville

  • Prime Minister who first began the effort to get colonial America to help pay


King george iii

King george III

  • King of England during the Revolutionary War


The road to revolution 1770 1776

British debt was huge! Lots of debt from the French and Indian War. British want the colonies to pay 1/3rd of maintaining protection in the America’s

I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND


Sugar act 1764

Sugar act1764

  • Sugar Act of 1764

    • First law ever passed for raising tax revenue in the colonies

    • Created resentment, then anger died down

I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND


The road to revolution 1770 1776

  • Quartering Act of 1765

    • Required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops

  • Stamp Act of 1765

    • To raise money to support military force in colonies

    • Mandated the use of stamped paper or stamps showing payment of tax

I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND


The road to revolution 1770 1776

FAIR

OR

UNFAIR???


Admiralty courts

Admiralty courts

  • ADMIRALTY COURTS

    • Similar to military courts

    • No juries allowed

    • Guilty until you could prove innocence

      Trial by jury and “innocent until proven guilty” historic BRITISH RIGHTS

I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND


The road to revolution 1770 1776

THE REAL

QUESTION


No taxation without representation

NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION

  • Many colonist felt as thought they didn’t have representation on tax matters

    • Denied the right of Parliament, in which NO AMERICANS served, to impose taxes on them

  • Grenville’s Response?

    • VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION

      • Every member of Parliament represented ALL BRITISH persons, even American colonists!!

I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS


Colonial actions to the stamp act

Colonial actions to the stamp act

  • Stamp Act Congress of 1765

    • Brought together in NY City 27 delegates from 9 colonies

    • Drew up a statement of grievances (complaints)

    • Begged King and Parliament to repeal act

    • Significance was began COLONIAL UNITY

  • NonImportation Agreements

    • All will NOT buy or trade with England

I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS


Violence

violence

  • Sons of Liberty/Daughters of Liberty

    • Enforced nonimportation agreements

    • Used “tar and feathers”

I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS


Did it work

Did it work?

  • England was hit hard

    • Hundreds of English workers out of work

    • Want Parliament to do away with Stamp Act

REPEALED

I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS


Declaratory act

Declaratory act

  • Passed with repeal of Stamp Act

  • Said Parliament had the right to do WHATEVER it wanted with the colonies

    LINES IN THE SAND WERE DRAWN!

I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS


Charles townshend

CHARLES TOWNSHEND

  • New PM after Grenville

  • Known as “Champagne Charley” (liked his adult beverages!)

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE


Townshend acts

TOWNSHEND ACTS

  • Light tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea

    • Paid at the ports instead of directly by the colonists

    • Thought that would go OK for colonists

  • Problems?

    • Colonists felt powerful after repeal of Stamp Act

    • Money to pay royal governors and judges in America

      • Colonists had control of money and could control these

      • BUT, if this happened, they COULD NOT control them!

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE


The road to revolution 1770 1776

  • Solutions?

    • NONIMPORTATION again, but not as successful

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE


Nicknames for british soldiers

Nicknames for britishsoldiers

  • Redcoats

  • Bloodybacks

  • Lobsterbacks

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE


Boston massacre 1770

Boston massacre1770

  • 60 townspeople against 10 Redcoats

  • British were being provoked

  • The Redcoats fired, wounding and killing 11 townspeople

  • Crispus Attucks was the first person to die in this massacre

  • Famous picture painted by Paul Revere

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE


Lord north

Lord North

  • Took over after Townshend

  • A “yes” man to King George!


Samuel adams

Samuel Adams

  • “Engineer of the Revolution” or “Penman of the Revolution”

    • Master at propaganda

    • Kept the tensions with Great Britain high

  • Created in Massachusetts COMMITTEES of CORRESPONDENCE

    • These were men who wrote letters from one town to another in Mass.

    • Soon it became intercolonial

    • The colonists would exchange letters and build resentment against the British.


Boston tea party 1773

Boston tea party1773

  • Govt tried to help British East India Tea Company by giving them a monopoly on free trade

  • Several “tea parties” occurred resulting in the burning of ships and tea

  • In Boston, the colonists boarded all three ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor

  • EFFECT? The British passed the Intolerable Acts

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT


Intolerable acts 1774

Intolerable Acts1774

  • Also known as the Coercive Acts

  • Intolerable Acts said…

    • The Port of Boston was to be closed until the damages paid for

    • Restricted town meetings

    • New stronger Quartering Act

    • If any English soldier killed an American, he would be tried in England

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT


Quebec act 1774

Quebec act1774

  • QUEBEC ACT

    • Not really a punishment on Boston, but happened at the same time

    • Extended the borders of Quebec all the way down to the Ohio River Valley

    • Colonists fear Catholicism and French Canadian threat again!

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT


Colonial reaction to quebec act

Colonial reaction to quebec act

  • Set a dangerous precedent

    • No representative assemblies and denials of jury trials---NO WAY!!

  • Upset land settlers who were wanting to move into the area

  • Aroused anti-Catholics who thought area was marked for Protestantism

I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT


1 st continental congress

1st continental congress

  • Met b/c of the INTOLERABLE ACTS

  • Colonies send their representatives to Philadelphia to form a Congress in response to the Intolerable Acts in 1774

  • Created a document called “The Association”

  • No real desire yet for independence

  • Called for a boycott of British made goods

  • Would meet again in 1775 if conditions with Britain did not get better

  • Main goal was to try and negotiate with King George and Parliament

I CAN SUMMARIZE THE EVENTS OF THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS


The road to revolution 1770 1776

  • After the Boston Tea Party the British send more troops to enforce the Intolerable Acts.

  • The British sent troops mainly to get our gunpowder and to seize Sam Adams and John Hancock.

  • Colonial militias prepare for war.

I CAN SUMMARIZE THE EVENTS OF THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS


Minutemen

minutemen

  • Citizens who could on a moments notice be prepared to defend their country

I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD


Paul revere and william dawes

Paul revere andwilliamdawes

  • Rode on horseback to notify Minutemen British had arrived!

I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD


Battle of lexington and concord 1775

Battle of lexington and concord 1775

  • Known as the “shot heard around the world”

I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD


The road to revolution 1770 1776

BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD

  • British searching for stolen weapons– “search and seizure”

  • Stopped at Lexington and encountered 56 Minutemen

  • Minutemen stood up for what they believed was their land

I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD


The road to revolution 1770 1776

BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

  • Minutemen engage British troops at Concord Bridge.

  • British find some weapons at Concord.

  • British return to Boston, 5,000 Minutemen attack British troops.

  • Americans

  • 90 dead wounded or capturedBritish

  • 250 dead, wounded, or captured

I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD


Englands strengths

Englands strengths

  • Population

  • Money

  • Navy

  • Support of Natives

I CAN LIST THE BRITISH STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES


American strengths

American strengths

  • Outstanding leadership

  • Economic aid from France

  • Defensive military tactics work

  • Able to produce enough food

  • Great marksmen

  • Moral advantage--just cause

I CAN LIST THE COLONIES STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES


British weaknesses

British weaknesses

  • Distance to the colonies

  • Size of America

  • Poor leadership

  • American only had to tie, British had to win

I CAN LIST THE BRITISH STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES


American weaknesses

American weaknesses

  • Poorly organized for war

  • Jealousy among colonies

  • Economic difficulties

  • Military challenges

  • Morale low/greedy profiteers

  • Only select few committed to cause

I CAN LIST THE COLONIES STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES


The road to revolution 1770 1776

British vs. United States

FactorsGreat BritainUnited States

Population

Manufacturing

Money

Army

Leaders

Geography

Navy

Will to Fight

Approximately 12 million

Highly developed

Richest country in the world

Large, well trained army plus Hessians

Few officers capable of leading

Strange land---difficult to re-supply troops

Naval world power

Trained soldiers---but no heart

Approximately 3 million and 1/3 loyal to England.

Practically none

No $$$ to support the war

Volunteers, poorly equipped

Dedicated officers plus foreign leaders

Familiar land, easy access to supplies

No navy

Defending homeland---will to fight


The road to revolution 1770 1776

MILITARY STRATEGIES

The British

The Americans

  • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].

  • Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]

  • Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.

  • Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.

  • Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.

  • “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.


Marquis de lafayette

Marquis de Lafayette

  • Youthful French officer who gave America not only military service, but also $200,000 of his own money

I CAN DISCUSS MAJOR PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


Baron von stueben

Baron von stueben

  • Drillmaster who whipped the Army into shape

I CAN DISCUSS MAJOR PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


Three famous african american s who helped colonies

Three famous African American’s who helped colonies

  • Peter Salem

  • Salem Poor

  • Prince Whipple

I CAN DISCUSS MAJOR PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


The road to revolution 1770 1776

Around 1/3rd of the colonists supported the Revolution, 1/3rdsupported the British, and 1/3rd were apathetic!


The road to revolution 1770 1776

Was the

American Revolution

Inevitable??


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