15 th 16 th century
1 / 23

15 th & 16 th century - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

15 th c.: The Hundred Year's War (1337-1453) The Wars of the Roses (1456 – 1489) - House of York – House of Lancaster. 16 th c.: Tudors (Henry VII) Henry VIII - Act of Supremacy (1534). 15 th & 16 th century. ! NOT a consequence of some military or political conquest

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' 15 th & 16 th century' - langer

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
15 th 16 th century

  • 15th c.:

  • The Hundred Year's War (1337-1453)

  • The Wars of the Roses (1456 – 1489)

    - House of York – House of Lancaster

16th c.:

Tudors (Henry VII)

Henry VIII

- Act of Supremacy (1534)

15th & 16th century

Influence of latin

  • ! NOT a consequence of some military or political conquest

  • ! BUT a consequence of the Revival of Learning (- to imitate Latin authors)

  • 2 periods - Latin era – Sir Thomas More

    & national era – Sir Thomas Elyot and Roger Ashman




15 th century

  • flow of words directly from Latin (maybe via French) continued - professional/technical terms (religion, medicine, law and literaure)

  • some words borrowed by an author in a attempt to produce a high style (some entered the language: meditation, oriental)

15th century

  • simultaneous borrowing of French and Latin words

    - feature of Modern English vocabulary

    - sets of three items (the same notions, differeing in style: kingly, royal, regal) -English word: more popular one, French: more literary, Latin: more learned

  • Great Vowel Shift (started in 15th century)

    - cause of differerence between sound system used in Chaucer's time and that found in Shakespeare's works

    - change in vowel system

    - all long vowels affected - changed their sound quality

    - Which vowel moved first?

    - 2 theories:push/ pull theory

  • William Caxton

    - published almost 80 works

    - in 1469, started the work on his first translationThe Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye(French account of the Trojan Wars)

    - in 1471 in Cologne, technique of printing

    - around 1474 in Bruges, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye- first book to be printed in English

  • - in 1476, press in Westminster, local London speech as norm

  • - in 1477, first book to be printed in England:The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres

  • - beginning of Rennaisance (until approximately 1650) - influx of foreign borrowings (growth of of Middle English vocabulary)

  • Transitional texts

    - transition from Middle to Early Modern English

    : proce romance translated by Sir Thomas Malory, the Morte D'Arthur, published by Caxton;

    : cycles of miracle and mystery plays preserved in 15th-century manuscripts

  • Early Modern English period

    - beginning: 1400-50 after Chaucer and the beginning of pronunciation shift or around 1500 after the effects of the printing press (key factor) – fostering norms of spelling and punctuation

  • Written standard English 1 (15th century)

    - the main influence: the Central Midlands area (population shift from this area to London),

    -some linguistic features eventually influenced the shape of Chancery Standard

    - one of the factors: influence of London Chancery especially after 1430 (Chancery scribes, literary texts affected as well)

  • - standardization <- influence of conventions adopted by the Chancery scribes,

  • - lack of uniformity in spelling and punctuation (printed / handwritten, between printers, within the work of an individual author/printer)

  • - example: in Caxton's single passage > booke vsboke,axyd vs axed,...)

  • Southern literary Standard by the Chancery scribes,

    - due to development of printing --> spread of a single norm

    - by the end of 15th century

    - forerunner of Standard English

16 th century

  • called by the Chancery scribes, Renaissance

  • Exploration of new countries - loan words- Latin, Greek, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese + 50 other languages

  • Translations of classical works- Latin and Greek words

  • Movement against loan words from Latin and Greek- Puritans- use of obsolete English words like sicker ( always), yblent (confused), etc.

16th century

  • Examples of renaissance borrowings: - by the Chancery scribes, Latin and Greek: appropriate, atmosphere, benefit, chaos, crisis, criterion, delirium, encyclopedia, exact, excursion, exist, expensive, explain, fact, lexicon, parasite, scheme, skeleton, soda, tactics, temperature, tonic, virus, etc.from or via French: anatomy, battery, chocolate, colonel, comrade, detail, duel, entrance, explore, entrance,grotesque, invite, muscle, passporte, pioneer, probability, progress, shock, ticket, tomato, vase, volunteer, etc.

  • from or via Italian by the Chancery scribes, : balcony, carnival, concerto, cupola, design, giraffe, lottery, opera, sonata, violin, volcanoSpanish and Portuguese: alligator, armada, banana, cannibal, canoe, cocoa, embargo, guitar, hurricane, mosquito, mulatto, negro, potato, sombrero, tabacco, etc.

  • from other languages by the Chancery scribes, : bamboo ( Malay), bazar , caravan, turban ( Persian), coffee, kiosk, yoghurt ( Turkish), cruise, landscape, yacht (Dutch), flannel ( Welsh), guru (Hindi), harem (Arabic), ketchup (Malay), rouble (Russian), trousers (Gaelic), etc.

  • - by the Chancery scribes, new- word formation: - hybrids- English part+ part of Latin or Greek origin (suffixation or prefixation): - ation (starvation) - ism ( communism) - ex ( ex- girlfriend) - anti ( antioxidant - pre (pre- Darwinian) - re (reorganize)

  • pairs of native nouns and foreign adjectives by the Chancery scribes, : mouth- oral, nose- nasal, eye- ocular, mind- mental, house- domestic, book- literary, moon- lunar, sun- solar, town- urban, man- human,...

    - native: - prefixation and suffixation: - ous (murmurous) - compounding : Frenchwoman - conversion: invite