15 th 16 th century
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15 th c.: The Hundred Year\'s War (1337-1453) The Wars of the Roses (1456 – 1489) - House of York – House of Lancaster. 16 th c.: Tudors (Henry VII) Henry VIII - Act of Supremacy (1534). 15 th & 16 th century. ! NOT a consequence of some military or political conquest

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15 th 16 th century
15th c.:
  • The Hundred Year\'s War (1337-1453)
  • The Wars of the Roses (1456 – 1489)

- House of York – House of Lancaster

16th c.:

Tudors (Henry VII)

Henry VIII

- Act of Supremacy (1534)

15th & 16th century
influence of latin
! NOT a consequence of some military or political conquest
  • ! BUT a consequence of the Revival of Learning (- to imitate Latin authors)
  • 2 periods - Latin era – Sir Thomas More

& national era – Sir Thomas Elyot and Roger Ashman

The strongest Latin influence on the lexical level
    • Science terminology
    • Latin – model language
    • Baugh – 3 stylistic levels: 1. native, 2. the Norman or French, 3. Graeco-Latin
Other languages
    • Dutch, Italian, Spanish, German ...
1. upbuilding of the new standard lanuage
    • Dialect of London
  • 2. spreading of the new literary standard
William Caxton –The Chronicle of Troy(1475)
    • long series of printed English books
15 th century
flow of words directly from Latin (maybe via French) continued - professional/technical terms (religion, medicine, law and literaure)
  • some words borrowed by an author in a attempt to produce a high style (some entered the language: meditation, oriental)
15th century
simultaneous borrowing of French and Latin words

- feature of Modern English vocabulary

- sets of three items (the same notions, differeing in style: kingly, royal, regal) -English word: more popular one, French: more literary, Latin: more learned

Great Vowel Shift (started in 15th century)

- cause of differerence between sound system used in Chaucer\'s time and that found in Shakespeare\'s works

- change in vowel system

- all long vowels affected - changed their sound quality

- Which vowel moved first?

- 2 theories:push/ pull theory

William Caxton

- published almost 80 works

- in 1469, started the work on his first translationThe Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye(French account of the Trojan Wars)

- in 1471 in Cologne, technique of printing

- around 1474 in Bruges, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye- first book to be printed in English

- in 1476, press in Westminster, local London speech as norm
  • - in 1477, first book to be printed in England:The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres
  • - beginning of Rennaisance (until approximately 1650) - influx of foreign borrowings (growth of of Middle English vocabulary)
Transitional texts

- transition from Middle to Early Modern English

: proce romance translated by Sir Thomas Malory, the Morte D\'Arthur, published by Caxton;

: cycles of miracle and mystery plays preserved in 15th-century manuscripts

Early Modern English period

- beginning: 1400-50 after Chaucer and the beginning of pronunciation shift or around 1500 after the effects of the printing press (key factor) – fostering norms of spelling and punctuation

Written standard English 1 (15th century)

- the main influence: the Central Midlands area (population shift from this area to London),

-some linguistic features eventually influenced the shape of Chancery Standard

- one of the factors: influence of London Chancery especially after 1430 (Chancery scribes, literary texts affected as well)

- standardization <- influence of conventions adopted by the Chancery scribes,
  • - lack of uniformity in spelling and punctuation (printed / handwritten, between printers, within the work of an individual author/printer)
  • - example: in Caxton\'s single passage > booke vsboke,axyd vs axed,...)
Southern literary Standard

- due to development of printing --> spread of a single norm

- by the end of 15th century

- forerunner of Standard English

16 th century
called Renaissance
  • Exploration of new countries - loan words- Latin, Greek, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese + 50 other languages
  • Translations of classical works- Latin and Greek words
  • Movement against loan words from Latin and Greek- Puritans- use of obsolete English words like sicker ( always), yblent (confused), etc.
16th century
Examples of renaissance borrowings: - Latin and Greek: appropriate, atmosphere, benefit, chaos, crisis, criterion, delirium, encyclopedia, exact, excursion, exist, expensive, explain, fact, lexicon, parasite, scheme, skeleton, soda, tactics, temperature, tonic, virus, etc.from or via French: anatomy, battery, chocolate, colonel, comrade, detail, duel, entrance, explore, entrance,grotesque, invite, muscle, passporte, pioneer, probability, progress, shock, ticket, tomato, vase, volunteer, etc.
from or via Italian: balcony, carnival, concerto, cupola, design, giraffe, lottery, opera, sonata, violin, volcanoSpanish and Portuguese: alligator, armada, banana, cannibal, canoe, cocoa, embargo, guitar, hurricane, mosquito, mulatto, negro, potato, sombrero, tabacco, etc.
from other languages: bamboo ( Malay), bazar , caravan, turban ( Persian), coffee, kiosk, yoghurt ( Turkish), cruise, landscape, yacht (Dutch), flannel ( Welsh), guru (Hindi), harem (Arabic), ketchup (Malay), rouble (Russian), trousers (Gaelic), etc.
- new- word formation: - hybrids- English part+ part of Latin or Greek origin (suffixation or prefixation): - ation (starvation) - ism ( communism) - ex ( ex- girlfriend) - anti ( antioxidant - pre (pre- Darwinian) - re (reorganize)
pairs of native nouns and foreign adjectives: mouth- oral, nose- nasal, eye- ocular, mind- mental, house- domestic, book- literary, moon- lunar, sun- solar, town- urban, man- human,...

- native: - prefixation and suffixation: - ous (murmurous) - compounding : Frenchwoman - conversion: invite