Seafood
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Seafood. Chapter 27. Shrimp Tuna Salmon Pollock Tilapia. Catfish Crab Cod Clams Scallops. Most Popular Fish. Consumption Trends. USDA Per Capita Annual Disappearance Data 16 pounds Fish and Shellfish 62 pounds Beef 60 pounds Chicken 47 pound Pork. Composition and Nutritive Value.

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Seafood

Seafood

Chapter 27


Most popular fish

Shrimp

Tuna

Salmon

Pollock

Tilapia

Catfish

Crab

Cod

Clams

Scallops

Most Popular Fish


Consumption trends

Consumption Trends

  • USDA Per Capita Annual Disappearance Data

    • 16 pounds Fish and Shellfish

    • 62 pounds Beef

    • 60 pounds Chicken

    • 47 pound Pork


Composition and nutritive value

Composition and Nutritive Value

  • Many types of fish

    • Lower in fat and cholesterol

    • High in omega-3 fatty acids

  • Shrimp is comparatively high in cholesterol


Classification

Fin Fish

Flat

Round

Shellfish

Mollusks

Crustaceans

Fat or Lean Fish

Fresh or Saltwater Fish

Classification


Mollusks

Mollusks

  • Soft structure, enclosed in hard shell

    • Univalves

      • Abalone and conch

    • Bivalves

      • Oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops

    • Cephalopods

      • Octopus and squid


Crustaceans

Crustaceans

  • Segmented bodies covered with a crust-like shell

    • Shrimp

    • Lobster

    • Crabs


Market forms

Market Forms

  • Fresh or Frozen

  • Fish

    • Whole, drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, butterfly fillet, sticks

  • Shellfish

    • In shell

    • Shucked

    • Headless

    • Cooked, frozen, live


Seafood harvest and aquaculture

Seafood Harvest and Aquaculture

  • Wild caught

    • Harvested from oceans, rivers, and lakes

  • Aquaculture

    • Fish farming

  • Sustainability

    • Consideration of long-term ecosystem

    • Fish Watch, NOAA


Government regulations

Government Regulations

  • Inspection - FDA

    • FDA mandatory oversight

    • Office of Seafood

    • National Shellfish Sanitation Program

    • HACCP systems required

  • Grading

    • NOAA

    • Voluntary inspection and grading


Buying fish and shellfish

Buying Fish and Shellfish

  • Assess retailer

    • Cleanliness

    • No “fishy” odor

    • Shell fish tags


Fresh fish

Fresh Fish

  • Fresh Fish

    • Firm flesh

    • Stiff body

    • Tight scales

    • Red gills

    • Eyes – bright and unsunken

    • Little or no slim

    • “Fresh ocean breeze” scent


Frozen fish

Frozen Fish

  • Solid frozen

  • No discoloration

  • Little or no odor

  • No evidence of frost, ice, or ice crystals suggesting temperature abuse


Mollusks1

Mollusks

  • Live mollusks should be alive

  • Live mollusks will close their shells when touched or tapped.

  • Mollusks that do not close shells are dead and should be discarded

  • Shellfish tags – area of harvest should be known


Fish products

Fish products

  • Minced

    • Surimi

  • Cured

  • Canned

  • Breaded or battered


Seafood safety

Seafood Safety

  • Causes of foodborne illness associated with seafood

    • Bacteria or viral contamination

    • Parasites

    • Shellfish or finfish toxins

  • Mercury contamination

    • Advisories for pregnant women and young children

    • Local advisories for lakes and rivers (www.epa.gov)


Seafood safety1

Seafood Safety

  • Bacteria

    • Vibria vulnificus found in raw oysters – death rate can be high for high risk individuals

    • Eat cook oysters

  • Virus

    • Hepatitus A and Norovirus as a result of contaminated water or ill food handlers

    • Eat cooked fish


Seafood safety2

Seafood Safety

  • Parasites

    • Anisakiais found in the environment of fish

    • Cook fish to 145°F (63°C)

    • Use sushi-grade fish that has been frozen for time and temperature needed


Seafood safety3

Seafood Safety

  • Fish and Seafood toxins

    • May not be smelled or tasted and are not destroyed by cooking or freezing

  • Fish toxins

    • The result of temperature abuse or the fish environment

    • Buy from reputable suppliers

  • Shellfish toxins

    • The result of shellfish harvested from contaminated waters.

    • Purchase from approved reputable suppliers


Spoilage and storage

Spoilage and Storage

  • Fish spoil rapidly

  • Fresh fish

    • Store on shaved ice

  • Shellfish

    • Store under refrigeration

    • Do not store “salt water” shellfish in “fresh” water


Preparation

Preparation

  • Finfish

    • Cook until 145°F (63°C)

      • Broiling

      • Baking

      • Frying

      • Steaming and Simmering

      • Microwave Cooking

  • Shellfish

    • Easily toughened by high temperatures


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