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Explorations in Artificial Intelligence

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Backtracking example into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Forward checking into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

### Examples of Applications of into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Graph Coloring

### Other examples into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Constraint Programming

- Constraint programming is a research area for declarative description
- and effective solving of large, particularly combinatorial;
- Combines different fields:
- Artificial Intelligence;
- Programming Languages;
- Symbolic Computing;
- Computational Logic;
- Operations Research;

Very competitive and even outperforming other approaches for solving hard combinatorial problems

Recent years there have been several successful applications – it is now part of standard OR books.

- Began in 1980s from AI world
- Prolog III (Marseilles, France)
- CLP(R)
- CHIP (ECRC, Germany)

- Application areas
- Image processing, Scheduling, sequencing, resource and personnel allocation, etc. etc.

- Active research area
- Specialized conferences (CP, CP/AI-OR, …)
- Journal (Constraints)
- Companies (Ilog and others)

Constraint Programming

- Two main contributions
- A new approach to combinatorial optimization
- Orthogonal and complementary to standard OR methods
- Combinatorial versus numerical

- A new language for combinatorial optimization
- Rich language for constraints
- Language for search procedures

- A new approach to combinatorial optimization

Modeling in Constraint Programming

- A rich constraint language
- Arithmetic, higher-order, logical constraints
- Global constraints for natural substructures

- Specification of a search procedure
- Definition of search tree to explore
- Specification of search strategy

Satisfiability is a particular case of a constraint programming language.

Constraint Programming

- 1- Problem Formulation:
- A problem is a finite set of constraints involving a finite set of variables.
- Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP) feasibility problem only and --- SAT is a particular case of CSP;
- Constraint Optimization Problems (COP) if in addition the solution is required to maximize an objective function

- 2- Problem Solution:
- Domain specific methods
- General Solution Methods

- Constraint programming is the study of computational systems based on constraints.
- A constraint
- Logical relation among several unknowns (or variables), each taking a value in a given domain. A constraint thus restricts the possible values that variables can take, it represents some partial information about the variables of interest.
- Very general framework. Very expressive;

Constraint Satisfaction Problems based on constraints.

- A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (P) consists of:
- A set of variables, X1,…,Xn ;
- For each variable Xi, a domain of possible values, Dom(Xi).
- A set of constraintsC1,…,Cm .
- A constraint Ci on k variables Xci1,…,Xcik is a relation R(Xci1,…,Xcik)Dci1x…xDcik that specifies the valid combinations of values for the variables involved.
- A (feasible) solution to a CSP is an assignment of values to all the variables, one value per variable, satisfying all the constraints.

Why is Satisfiability a particular case of CSP?

- A variable V can be assigned a value v (V based on constraints. v) if and only if v Є Dom(V).
- A consistent set of assignments is a set of assignments {V1 v1, …, Vk vk}, such that all the constraints are satisfied, and each of the Vi is unique;
- A (feasible) solution is a complete consistent set of assignments, i.e., one consistent set of assignments in which the number of variables in the set is equal to the number of variables in the problem (n).

- Any subset of a (feasible) solution is consistent; based on constraints.
- We might be interested in finding:
- Any (feasible) solution
- Enumerating or counting all the (feasible) solutions or all optimal solutions
- Finding the optimal solution --- i.e., (feasible) solution(s) that optimize(s) an objective function

Constraint Programming At a Glance: Modeling based on constraints.

Graph Coloring Problem:

Can we color the regions of the map of Australia,

using three colors – red, green, and blue - such that adjacent regions have

different colors?

Source: AIMA – Russell and Norvig

Constraint Programming At a Glance: Modeling based on constraints.

1 – Modeling

Rich language

Different Models (Binary, N-ary, Global Constraints,etc)

Source: AIMA – Russell and Norvig

The Constraint Graph based on constraints.

Planar Graphs based on constraints.

- Special type of graphs planar graphs.
- Planar Graph – is a graph that can be drawn (mathematicians say "can be embedded
- in the plane") so that no edges intersect. A nonplanar graph cannot be drawn without
- edge intersections.

The graph representation of a map (each region corresponds to a node; edges

link neighbor regions) is a planar graph.

B

C

G

B

G

D

A

C

D

F

F

A

E

E

Yes based on constraints.

Planar graph?

Planar vs. NonPlanar GraphsPlanar graph

K5

K3,3

NonPlanar graph

NonPlanar graph

A subdivision of a graph results from inserting vertices into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Example of a subdivision of K3,3.

Planar Graph - A finite graph is planar iff it does not contain a subgraph that is a subdivision of K5 (the complete graph on five vertices) or K3,3 (complete bipartite graph on six vertices, three of which connect to each of the other three).

Four Color Theorem into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- The chromatic number of a graph is the least number of colors
- that are required to color a graph.
- The Four Color Theorem – the chromatic number of a planar graph
- is no greater than four.
- Proof: Appel and Haken 1976; careful case analysis performed by computer; proof
- reduced the infinitude of possible maps to 1,936 reducible configurations (later
- reduced to 1,476) which had to be checked one by one by computer. This
- reducibility part of the work was independently double checked with different
- programs and computers. The computer program ran for hundreds of hours.

Four color map.

Graph Coloring for Arbitrary Graphs into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Four Color Theorem – only applies to planar graphs;
- For an arbitrary graph –
- finding the chromatic number of an arbitrary graph takes exponential time (in the worst-case);
- even finding an approximation to the chromatic number up to a factor of 2 (i.e., a bound which is no more than double the chromatic number) is hard – if we found a polynomial time approximation algorithm with less than a factor of 2, then we would also find a polynomial time algorithm for finding the excat chromatic number of the graph.

1 into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

1

7

7

2

2

6

6

3

3

5

5

4

4

Application of Graph Coloring- Lots of applications involving scheduling and assignments.
- Scheduling of final exams – nodes represent finals, edges between finals
- denote that both finals have common students (and therefore they have to
- have different colors, or different periods).

Time Period courses

I (red) 1,6

II (blue)2

III (green)3,5

IV (black)

Graph of finals for 7 courses

Constraint Programming At a Glance: Search into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- 2 – Search
- Different variants of backtrack search (Depth First Search; Breadth-First Search; Iterative Deepening; branch and bound, etc)
- core of AI technology
- Deterministic vs. Randomized backtrack search

Standard search formulation (incremental) into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Let's start with the straightforward approach, then fix it
- States are defined by the values assigned so far
- Initial state: the empty assignment { }
- Successor function: assign a value to an unassigned variable that does not conflict with current assignment
fail if no legal assignments

- Goal test: the current assignment is complete
- This is the same for all CSPs
- Every solution appears at depth n (or less than n) with n variables use depth-first search

Backtracking search into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Variable assignments are commutative}, i.e.,
- [ WA = red then NT = green ] same as [ NT = green then WA = red ]
- Only need to consider assignments to a single variable at each node
b = d and there are $d^n$ leaves

- Depth-first search for CSPs with single-variable assignments is called backtracking search
- Backtracking search is the basic uninformed algorithm for CSPs

Backtracking search into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Backtracking example into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Backtracking example into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Backtracking example into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Improving backtracking efficiency into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- General-purpose methods can give huge gains in speed:
- Which variable should be assigned next?
- In what order should its values be tried?
- Can we detect inevitable failure early?

Most constrained variable into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Most constrained variable:
choose the variable with the fewest legal values

- a.k.a. minimum remaining values (MRV) heuristic

Most constraining variable into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Tie-breaker among most constrained variables
- Most constraining variable:
- choose the variable with the most constraints on remaining variables

Least constraining value into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Given a variable, choose the least constraining value:
- the one that rules out the fewest values in the remaining variables

- Combining these heuristics makes 1000 queens feasible

More advanced… into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Constraint Programming At a Glance: Consistency- 3 – Consistency
- Key concept in Constraint Programming idea: remove inconsistent values from variables’ domains;
- Different notions of consistency:
- Node consistency (1 variable at a time)
- Arc consistency (2 variables at a time)
- Forward checking (simple version of arc consistency;
- 2 variables at a time)
- Hyper-arc consistency (k>2 variables at a time)
- Global Constraints

Node Consistency into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- The simplest form of consistency technique; Let’s G=(V,C) denote the constraint
- graph of a binary CSP:
- Node Consistency
- The node representing a variable V in the constraint graph is node consistent if for every value x in the current domain of V, each unary constraint on V is satisfied.
- Node consistency achieved by simply removing values from the domain D of each variable V that do not satisfy unary constraints on V.

Forward checking into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Idea:
- Keep track of remaining legal values for unassigned variables
- Terminate search when any variable has no legal values

Forward checking into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Idea:
- Keep track of remaining legal values for unassigned variables
- Terminate search when any variable has no legal values

Forward checking into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Idea:
- Keep track of remaining legal values for unassigned variables
- Terminate search when any variable has no legal values

- Idea:
- Keep track of remaining legal values for unassigned variables
- Terminate search when any variable has no legal values

Constraint propagation into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Forward checking propagates information from assigned to unassigned variables, but doesn't provide early detection for all failures:
- NT and SA cannot both be blue!
- Constraint propagation repeatedly enforces constraints locally

T into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Arc consistency- Simplest form of propagation makes each arc consistent
- X Y is consistent iff
for every value x of X there is some allowed y

T into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Arc consistency- Simplest form of propagation makes each arc consistent
- X Y is consistent iff
for every value x of X there is some allowed y

T into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Arc consistency- Simplest form of propagation makes each arc consistent
- X Y is consistent iff
for every value x of X there is some allowed y

- If X loses a value, neighbors of X need to be rechecked

T into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Arc consistency- Simplest form of propagation makes each arc consistent
- X Y is consistent iff
for every value x of X there is some allowed y

- If X loses a value, neighbors of X need to be rechecked
- Arc consistency detects failure earlier than forward checking
- Can be run as a preprocessor or after each assignment

Arc consistency algorithm AC-3 into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Time complexity: O(n2d3)

Constraint Programming At a Glance: into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Arc Consistency

If X’s domain is reduced, neighbors of X have to be rechecked.

look back into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

look ahead

Labelling order

Constraint Programming At a Glance: Integration of Search + Consistency- 4 – Search + Consistency Constraint Propagation
- Combination of search (backtracking) with consistency techniques methods:
- look ahead (preventing conflicts)
- forward checking, full look-ahead, etc
- look back (learning from conflicts)

More advanced

R. Bartak 99

Scheduling of Final Exams into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- How can the final exams at Cornell be scheduled so that no student nhas
- two exams at the same time?
- A vertex correspond to a course;
- An edge between two vertices denotes that there is at least one common
- Student in the courses they represent;
- Each time slot for a final exam is represented by a different color.
- A coloring of the graph corresponds to a valid schedule of the exams.

1 into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Time

Period

I

II

III

IV

Courses

1,6

2

3,5

4,7

2

7

6

3

5

4

Scheduling of Final Exams1

2

7

6

3

5

4

What are the constraints between courses?

Find a valid coloring

Frequency Assignments into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- T.V. channels 2 through 13 are assigned to stations in North
- America so that no no two stations within 150 miles can operate on
- the same channel. How can the assignment of channels be
- modeled as a graph coloriong?

- A vertex corresponds to one station;
- There is a edge between two vertices if they are located within 150 miles
- of each other
- Coloring of graph --- corresponds to a valid assignment of channels;
- each color represents a different channel.

Index Registers into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- In efficient compilers the execution of loops can be speeded up by storing
- frequently used variables temporarily in index registers in the central
- processing unit, instead of the regular memory. Fopr a given loop, how
- many index registers are needed?

- Each vertex corresponds to a variable in the loop.
- An edge between two vertices denotes the fact that the corresponding variables must be stored in index registers at the same time during the execution of the loop.
- Chromatic number of the graph gives the number of index registers needed.

Crypto-arithmetic Puzzle into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- SEND 9567
- +MORE + 1085
- ----------- ----------
- MONEY 10652

Variables: S E N D M O R Y

Domains:

[1..9] for S and M

[0..9] for E N D O R Y

Crypto-arithmetic Puzzle into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Constraints 1

- 1 single constraint

1000 S + 100 E + 10 N + D +

1000 M + 100 O + 10 R + E

=

10000 M + 1000 O + 100 N + 10 E + y

Or

5 equality constraints, using “carry” variables C1, …, C4 Є [0..9]

SEND

+MORE

-----------

MONEY

D + E = 10 C1 + Y;

C1 + N + R = 10 C2 + E;

C2 + E + O = 10 C3 + N;

C3 + S + M = 10 C4 + O;

C4 = M

Crypto-arithmetic Puzzle into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Constraints 2

- 28 not-equal constraints
- X≠ Y, X,Y Є {S E N D M O R Y}
- Or
- A single constraint
- Alldifferent(S, E, N, D, M, O, R, Y)

Alldifferent(X1, … , Xn) it states in a compact way that the variables

X1, … , Xn have all different values assigned to them

Global constraint (it involves n-ary constraint)

Special procedures to handle this constraint

8 Queens Problem into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

The standard 8 by 8 Queen's problem asks how to place 8 queens

on an ordinary chess board so that they don’t attack each other

Analysis of Polyhedral Scenes into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Origins of constraint satisfaction problems
- researchers in computer vision in the 60s-70s were interested in developing a procedure to assign 3- dimensional interpretations to scenes;
- They identified
- Four types of junctions
- Three types of edges

Edge Types into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Hidden – if one of its planes cannot be seen
- represented with arrows:
- or
- Convex – from the viewer’s perspective
- represented with
- +
- Concave – from the viewer’s perspective
- represented with
- -

Types of Junctions into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Type of junction: L Fork T Arrow

CSP Model into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Variables Edges;
- Domains {+,-,,}
- Constraints:
- 1- The different type junctions define constraints:
- L, Fork, T, Arrow;
- L = {(, ) , ( , ), (+, ), (,+), (-, ), (,-)}
- Fork = { (+,+,+), (-,-,-), (,,-), (,-,),(-,,)}

L(A,B) the pair of values assigned to variables A,B

has to belong in the set L;

Fork(A,B,C) the trio of values assigned to variables A,B,C

has to belong in the set Fork;

CSP Model into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- T = {(, , ) , ( ,,), (,,+), (,-)}
- Arrow = { (,,+), (+,+,-), (-,-,+)}

T(A,B,C) the trio of values assigned to variables A,B,C

has to belong in the set T;

Arrow(A,B,C) the trio of values assigned to variables A,B,C

has to belong in the set Arrow;

2- For each edge XY its reverse YX has a compatible value

Edge = { +,+), (-,-), (,),(,)}

Edge(A,B) the pair of values assigned to variables A,B

has to belong in the set Edge;

E into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

F

A

B

G

C

D

CSP Model - CubeHow to label the cube?

E into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

F

A

B

G

C

D

CSP Model- Variables: Edges: AB, BA,AC,CA,AE,EA,CD,
- DC,BD,DB,DG,GD,GF,FG,EF,FE,AE,EA;
- Domains {+,-,,}
- Constraints:
- L(AC,CD); L(AE,EF); L(DG,GF);
- Arrow(AC,AE,AB); Arrow(EF,FG,BF); Arrow(CD,DG,DB);
- Fork(AB,BF,BD);
- Edge(AB,BA); Edge(AC,CA); Edge(AE,EA);
- Edge(EF,FE); Edge(BF,FB); Edge(FG,GF);
- Edge(CD,DC); Edge(BD,DB); Edge(DG,GD);

E into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

F

A

B

G

C

D

CSP Model- Variables: Edges: AB, BA,AC,CA,AE,EA,CD,
- DC,BD,DB,DG,GD,GF,FG,EF,FE,AE,EA;
- Domains {+,-,,}
- Constraints:
- L(AC,CD); L(AE,EF); L(DG,GF);
- Arrow(AC,AE,AB); Arrow(EF,FG,BF); Arrow(CD,DG,DB);
- Fork(AB,BF,BD);
- Edge(AB,BA); Edge(AC,CA); Edge(AE,EA);
- Edge(EF,FE); Edge(BF,FB); Edge(FG,GF);
- Edge(CD,DC); Edge(BD,DB); Edge(DG,GD);

+

+

+

E into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

F

A

B

G

C

D

CSP Model+

+

+

One (out of four) possible labelings

Escher: into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Waterfall, 1961

Escher: into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Belvedere, May 1958

Escher: into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. Ascending and Descending, 1960

The Impossible Objects is Escher’s Worlds into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Penrose & Penrose Stairs

Penrose Triangle

Impossible Objects: into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times. No labeling!

Real-World Applications into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Hardware and Software Configuration
- Hardware and Software Verification
- Timetabling
- Sport Scheduling
- Floor-Planning
- Car Sequencing
- Transporation scheduling

Varieties of CSPs into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Variety of Constraints into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

Binary CSP into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Restrict form of CSP with only
- Unary constraints
- Binary contraints
- Constraint graph
- Note: unary constraints can be satisfied by reducing the domain of the constrained variable (node consistency)

Further reading into edges (for example, changing an edge •——• to •—•—•) and repeating this zero or more times.

- Algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction
- Problems: A Survey, Vipin Kumar, in AI Magazine
- 13(1):32-44,1992 (available online).

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