a look at water and its contaminants
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A Look at Water and Its Contaminants. Water Part B. Physical Properties of Water. Matter anything that occupies space and has mass. Physical Properties of Water. Physical Properties : can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a sample of matter Examples:

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physical properties of water
Physical Properties of Water
  • Matter
    • anything that occupies space and has mass
physical properties of water1
Physical Properties of Water
  • Physical Properties: can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a sample of matter
  • Examples:
    • Boiling point, melting point, density, color
physical properties of water2
Physical Properties of Water
  • Density: mass  volume
  • the density of liquid water is 1.00 g/mL
physical properties of water3
Physical Properties of Water
  • Physical state affects density:
    • gases are much less dense than liquids
    • solid form of a substance is usually denser than its liquid form
    • EXCEPT WATER: As water freezes it occupies a larger volume (d = 0.92 g/mL)
  • the density of liquid water is 1.00 g/mL
physical properties of water4
Physical Properties of Water
  • clear, odorless, colorless, and tasteless
  • easily changes to each of the three phases of matter
  • “universal solvent”- so many substances easily dissolve in water to make aqueous solutions.
physical properties of water5
Physical Properties of Water
  • high boiling point 100 C
  • high surface tension
mixtures and solutions
Mixtures and Solutions
  • Mixture: two or more substances are mixed together and they keep their individual properties
    • Heterogeneous mixture: a mixture that is not uniform throughout
      • Example: Chocolate chip cookie
    • Homogeneous mixture (Solution): a mixture that is uniform throughout
      • Example: Peanut Butter Cookie
mixtures and solutions1
Mixtures and Solutions
  • Mixtures are classified by size of the particles in the mixture.
mixtures and solutions2
Mixtures and Solutions

Solution- smallest particle size,

  • salt water
  • Solute- substance that is dissolved
  • Solvent- substance that does the dissolving
  • Kool-Aid
mixtures and solutions3
Mixtures and Solutions
    • Colloid-medium particle size,
      • Fog
  • Shows the Tyndall Effect light is scattered in many directions and can easily be seen.
  • like seeing dust particles in the light beam of a light
mixtures and solutions4
Mixtures and Solutions
  • Suspension-largest particle size,
    • medicine that says “shake before using”
particulate view of water
Particulate View of Water
  • Atoms: All matter is composed of atoms; smallest particles possessing the properties of an element
  • Element: matter that is made up of only one kind of atom
  • oxygen is an element because it is composed of only oxygen atoms
  • 90 elements are found in nature!
particulate view of water1
Particulate View of Water
  • Compound: substances composed of two or more elements linked together chemically in fixed proportions
  • water H2O
  • table salt NaCl
  • ammonia NH3
  • baking soda NaHCO3
  • chalk CaCO3
symbols formulas equations
Symbols, Formulas & Equations
  • Chemical Symbols: the international language of chemists and scientists across the planet
  • each element is assigned a symbol
  • the first letter is capitalized; all other letters are lowercase
  • Al, Cl, Ag, Mg
symbols formulas equations1
Symbols, Formulas & Equations

Subscripts: a number written below which indicates the number of atoms of each element that are present in a substance 

H2O 2 Atoms of hydrogen

1 Atom of oxygen

C3H8 3 Atoms of carbon

8 Atoms of hydrogen

symbols formulas equations2
Symbols, Formulas & Equations
  • Chemical reactions: creating new substances
  • the new substances have completely different properties than the original substances.

2H2 + O2 2H2O

Hydrogen + Oxygen  Water

Reactants  Products

symbols formulas equations3
Symbols, Formulas & Equations
  • Diatomic molecules: elements that exist as two bonded atoms of the same element
  • H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2 & I2
  • All other elements are written at single atoms (Ca, Fe, Na & Mg)
the electrical nature of matter
The Electrical Nature of Matter
  • Remember: LIKE CHARGES REPEL AND UNLIKE CHARGES ATTRACT!
  • Atoms have:
    • Protons- positive
    • Electrons- negative
    • Neutrons-neutral (no charge)
the electrical nature of matter1
The Electrical Nature of Matter
  • Let’s try
    • An atom has:
      • 15 protons + 15 electrons =
      • 20 protons + 21 electrons =
      • 19 protons + 18 electrons =
      • 10 protons + 12 electrons=
the electrical nature of matter2
The Electrical Nature of Matter
  • Opposites attract-
    • this is the glue to hold atoms together
    • These are chemical bonds.
ions and ionic compounds
Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • Ions:
    • charged atoms;
    • atoms that have gained or lost electrons to form negative or positive ions
  • Ionic Compounds: compounds composed of positive and negative ions
ions and ionic compounds1
Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • Cation: a positively charged ion (Na+)
  • Anion: a negatively charged ion (Cl-)
  • Polyatomic ion: (many-atoms) an ions made of two or more bonded atoms (NH4+ or NO3-)
ions and ionic compounds2
Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • Step 1: Write the symbols for the ions side by side, with the positive ion (or most metallic element) first
  • Step 2: Cross over the charge values to give subscripts
  • Step 3: Check the subscripts by making sure the total charge of ions in the compound is zero, simplify
  • Step 4: Write the formula
ions and ionic compounds3
Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • Let’s try: Need to use ion chart
  • zinc oxide
  • aluminum sulfide
  • calcium carbonate
ions and ionic compounds4
Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • Naming Compounds
    • Nomenclature: the method of naming chemical compounds

1. write the name of the element having a positive charge

2. add the name of the negative element

3. the negative element must be modified to end in –ide

ions and ionic compounds5
Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • Let’s try: Use the chart of ions
  • NaI2
  • K2O
  • BaSO4
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