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Engineering 4862 Microprocessors Lecture 21. Cheng Li EN-4012 [email protected] 8086/88 uPro and Supporting Chips. 8086/88: Microprocessor 8237: DMA controller to transfer data 8284A: Clock generator, provide critical timing for the microprocessor 8288: Provide control signals

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Engineering 4862 Microprocessors Lecture 21

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Engineering 4862 microprocessors lecture 21 l.jpg

Engineering 4862 MicroprocessorsLecture 21

Cheng Li

EN-4012

[email protected]


8086 88 upro and supporting chips l.jpg

8086/88 uPro and Supporting Chips

  • 8086/88: Microprocessor

  • 8237: DMA controller to transfer data

  • 8284A: Clock generator, provide critical timing for the microprocessor

  • 8288: Provide control signals

  • 8253/8254: Timer

  • 8255: Port expansion

  • 8259: Interrupt controller

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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8088 / 8086 CPU in Min Mode

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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8086/88 uPro and Supporting Chips

  • Data Bus:

    • Pins AD0 – AD15 for 8086; Pins AD0 – AD7 for 8088

    • Great effort to minimize the number of pins for external connection  Multiplexed address and data busses

    • ALE (Address Latch Enable):Signals whether the information is address or data

      • When address is sent, ALE = HIGH

      • When data is to be sent out or in, ALE = LOW

    • Bidirectional bus go through 74LS245 transceiver

      • DT/R and DEN: two signals to activate the transceiver

        • DT/R = HIGH: transmit information from uPro: A  B

        • DT/R = LOW: receive information from outside: B  A

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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Role of ALE in Addr/Data Demux

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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ALE Timing in 8088 Based System

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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D Latch (74LS373)

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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BidirectionalBuffer(74LS245)

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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8086/88 uPro and Supporting Chips

  • Address Bus:

    • To demultiplex the address signals from the address/data pins  A latch must be used

    • 74LS373 is commonly used to grab the address

      • Two purposes: 1) Latch the address from the 8088 and provide address to the entire computer

        • Controlled by signal AEN and ALE

        • When AEN (connect to OE) is LOW, 8088 provides address busses to the system. The 8288 provide ALE (connect to G) to enable to latch the address from the CPU. Thus providing a 20-bit stable address to all memory, peripheral and expansion slots

      • 2) To isolate the system address busses from local address busses

        • System busses could be used by DMA or other boards through the expansion slots. Must not disturb CPU. Achieved by AEN.

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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Local Bus v.s. System Bus

  • Local Bus: to the left of the 8288, 74LS373, 74LS245

  • System Bus: everything to the right side of those chips

  • Why Bus buffering (boosting)?

    • When a pulse leaves an IC, it can lose source of its strength, depending on how far away the receiving IC chip is located

    • The more pins a signal is connected to, the stronger the signal must be to drive them all  Thus we need buffering

    • Bus buffering is nothing more than boosting the signals traveling on the busses  commonly used 74LS244, 245

    • Signals provided by the CPU need boosting since 8086/88 is a CMOS chip and MOS has a much lower driving capability than that of TTL

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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8088 Connection and Bus in IBM/XT

Engr 4862 Microprocessors


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