Leadership and military ethics in peace support operations
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LEADERSHIP AND MILITARY ETHICS IN PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS. Assoc. prof. Audrone Petrauskaite General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania July 2013, Wroclaw. PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS INCLUDES:. Conflict prevention, Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, Peace building operations.

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LEADERSHIP AND MILITARY ETHICS IN PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS

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LEADERSHIP AND MILITARY ETHICS IN PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS

Assoc. prof. Audrone Petrauskaite

General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania

July 2013, Wroclaw


PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS INCLUDES:

  • Conflict prevention,

  • Peacekeeping,

  • Peacemaking,

  • Peace building operations.


PSO AND THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE ARMED FORCES IN POSTMODERN SOCIETY

PSO has changed:

  • the character of the military forces,

  • the nature of military person,

  • the nature of military leader.


Armed Forces in the Three ErasC. C. Moscos conception


Militaries in the world transformation(according E. R. Micewski)

NATIONALISM (Modern)

(End 30-Year War until end of WW II)

BIPOLARISM (Late Modern)

(Cold War)

MONDIALISM (Postmodern)

(since end of Cold War)

Globalization – Transnationalization – Internationalization

Reconstruction

Deconstruction


POSTMODERN PARADIGM OF MILITARIES:

,,…shifts toward a volunteer force, more multipurpose in mission, increasingly androgynous in make up and ethos, and with a greater permeability with civilian society“.

,,...The roles of combat leader, manager/technician, and soldier statesman/soldier-scholar are added rather than substituted as the international environment changes. ... all roles remain necessary“.

C.C. Moskos


IDENTITY OF (POST) MODERN MILITARY

Modern Military

Postmodern Military

Peacekeeping andhumanitarian tasks

Threat & Application

of Violence

FIGHTER

PROTECTOR


Participating in PSO and new identity of militaries

  • The purpose of participating in PSO has changed traditional purpose of the military from fighting wars to non-traditional operations.

  • New character of military purpose has brought the changes in the identity of militaries.

    _________________

  • This new identity requires critical thinking and creative person in the military especially in the officer corp.


Participating in PSO and new identity of militaries

  • International authority and international legitimacy of PSO meaning more international and less national character of the activities of militaries.

  • International character of PSO could be reasoned by its multinational composition.

    __________________

  • As a result many international factors creating the identity of international soldier rather than national.


Participating in PSO and new identity of militaries

  • The non-traditional character of PSO includes the partnership with the civilians and increasing interoperability of civilian and military spheres.

    ____________________

  • That means the shift of traditional professional identity of the militaries toward civic identity based on the global civic values and universal moral virtues.


Participating in PSO and new identity of militaries

  • As the result of the participation in PSO the identity of militaries includes more human and civic meaning in its content.

  • Participation in PSO requires reconsidering the priorities in the system of traditional military values.


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

The value orientation includes main principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group.

The military both as professionals and as human-beings are forming their system of values under the influence of many factors:

  • social,

  • political,

  • economical,

  • psychological, etc.


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

Conscience of the military is a convergence of their

  • personal,

  • professional,

  • national,

  • civic,

  • universal moral values.

    All these values could be suggested as the basis for the right moral attitude to professional activities of a military person.


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

Traditional values of the good soldier:

  • duty,

  • honor,

  • country,

  • loyalty,

  • sacrifice,

  • honesty,

  • patriotism,

  • responsibility,

  • courage,

  • dignity,

  • etc.


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

Personal moral maturity the militaries is closely connected with their civic and national system of values:

  • Civic identity of a person includes: freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, etc.

  • Civic values are not opposite to such national values as native country, national language, national culture, national historical memory and traditions.


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

Personal moral maturity the militaries is closely connected with their civic and national system of values:

  • Civic identity of a person includes: freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, etc.

  • Civic values are not opposite to such national values as native country, national language, national culture, national historical memory and traditions.


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

Postmodern society demands for militaries:

  • Humanity

  • Tolerance

  • Respect


The value orientation of the militaries in PSO

Conscience of the military is a convergence of their

  • personal,

  • professional,

  • national,

  • civic,

  • universal moral values.

    All these values could be suggested as the basis for the right moral attitude to professional activities of a military person.


Case study

  • Lieutenant-General Roméo Antonius Dallaire, (born June 25, 1946) is a Canadian senator, humanitarian, . Dallaire is widely known for having served as Force Commander of UNAMIR, the ill-fated United Nations peacekeeping force for Rwanda between 1993 and 1994, and for trying to stop the genocide that was being waged by Hutu extremists against Tutsis and Hutu moderates.


Responsibility

  • Responsibility involves the understanding of the person that he is acting by his own decision and so that he is responsible for this decision – good or bad.

  • Responsibility impact person to act according his conscience what means… according his value orientation.


Nature of responsibility

Causal responsibility – to be causally responsible for a state of affairs is to bring it either directly or indirectly.

Legal responsibility– to be legally responsible is to fulfill the requirements accountability under the law either the requirements for having a legal obligations.

Moral responsibility– to be moral responsible is to have a moral obligation and to fulfill for a morally significant act deserving blame or praise.


Causal responsibility

Moral responsibility

Legal responsibility


Responsibility:

  • is based on the human’s feeling (fear) to be punished or deserve of blame,

  • possessed the human’s ability to understand what he is doing,

  • push the human’s mind to control his behavior,

  • is connected with the human’s free will or freedom.


Decision theory

,,A decision is something terrible“. It is ,,both a terrible and tragic situation“ in which we are alone.

,,If we knew what to do, … then the decision would not be a decision…

At some point, for a decision to be made, you have to go beyond knowledge, to do something that you don’t know“.

Jacques Derrida


Decision making is related with:

  • Human’s free will

  • Human’s choice

  • Human’s responsibility

  • Human’s guilt


Human’s choice :

  • The decision is person’s choice all the time

  • The main human’s choice is the ,,Choice of itself“ which is revealed in ,,limit-situations“ (death, war, conflict, quilt, etc) and requires uncertainty, antinomy decisions.


Human’s guilt:

Person is guilty for the results of the decision because nobody knows was it right or wrong or could be better.

Guilt can be ( according Karl Jaspers):

  • Criminal (when the human is acting illegally)

  • Political (when political decisions by the government or population are wrong)

  • Moral (when human acting against moral norms and principles)

  • Philosophical (when human is feeling responsibility for everything and to everybody)


Militaries toward postmodern military…? Lithuanian case


Military values:

The most important values for Lithuanian cadets


Military values:The important human values


Military values:

The cadet’s opinion about women’s equality


Military values:The cadet’s opinion about homosexuals


Ethical transformations toward postmodern military

,,… people in the military should learn to think in new ways and to develop capabilities that make it possible to adapt quickly and effectively to new challenges and unexpected circumstances and situations“.Prof. Jarmo Toiskallio


The requirements

of the society

Practical experience

Value orientation

of the militaries

Personnal morality

Professional norms and

values


Ethical transformations toward postmodern military

,,The attempt to reduce ethics to the level of observing the letter of the laws has perhaps to be considered the first danger to military ethics on the individual level of soldiering and commanding“.

Prof. Edwin R. Micewski


Conclusions:

1. Peace support operations (PSO) and their peacekeeping and humanitarian tasks are changing the identity of the militaries:

  • international factors creating the identity of international soldier rather than national.

  • traditional professional identity of the militaries the shifts toward civic identity based on the global civic values and universal moral virtues.

  • new identity requires critical thinking and creative person in the military.


Conclusions:

2. The identity of present military requires reconsidering the priorities in the system of values’ orientation of the militaries: the traditional professional or national values must be formed on the basis of civic and universal human values.


Conclusions:

3. The changes in the system of values are caused by the importance of collective and individual responsibility of the militaries participating in PSO.


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