WUJUD ZAT
Download
1 / 61

WUJUD ZAT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 514 Views
  • Uploaded on

WUJUD ZAT. Oleh A. Sjaifullah. Kimia adalah. Pengetahuan yang mempelajari materi dan perubahannya. Materi adalah. Apapaun yang memiliki massa dan menempati ruang. Teori Kinetik. Semua partikel (atoms, molekul dan ion) menyusun materi selalu bergerak secara random dan berinteraksi.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' WUJUD ZAT' - landon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

WUJUD ZAT

Oleh

A. Sjaifullah


Kimia adalah

Pengetahuan yang mempelajari materi dan perubahannya

Materi adalah

Apapaun yang memiliki massa dan menempati ruang


Teori Kinetik

Semua partikel (atoms, molekul dan ion) menyusun materi selalu bergerak secara randomdan berinteraksi


Wujud zat
Wujud zat

  • Cara menyusun partikel

  • Energi partikel

  • Interaksi/jarak antar partikel


Karakteristik wujud zat

Sifat partikel

wujud

Proximity

Energy

gerakan

Volume

bentuk

padat

close

little

vibrational

definite

definite

cair

close

moderate

rotational

definite

indefinite

gas

far apart

a lot

translational

indefinite

indefinite


Jika kondisi partikel (susunan, interaksi dan energi) diubah,

maka terjadi perubahan wujud

posisi partikel-partikel zat cair & gas tidak tetap,

Zat cair dan gas dapat dialirkan/berdifusi =(fluida)

Perubahan wujud terjadi dalam siklus air di alam


Sifat-sifat diubah, gas

Salah satu sifat gas adalah dapat memberikan tekanan.

Tekanan gas terjadi akbat dari tumbukan partikel-partikel gas dengan dinding

Tekanan yang disebabkan oleh campuran gas-gas yang ada di udara disebut tekanan atmosfir

Tekanan adalah…..


Rasakan adanya tekanan gas!! diubah,

  • Mengapa tekanan udara sangat penting?

    • Adanya angin

    • Menciptakan mendung dan awan


Hubungan tekanan dan volume gas diubah, Hukum Boyle

P1V1 = P2V2


Volume and Temperature diubah, , tekanan tetap

Hukum Charles

V2

V1

=

T1

T2


Korek gas, hair spray, tabung LPG akan terasa lebih dingin jika digunakan,

Karena……………..


Karena partikel gas hampir tidak berinteraksi satu sama lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu


Persamaan keadaan gas ideal. lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu


Volume molar gas pada STP lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu


Zat Cair lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu


Properties of liquids
Properties of Liquids lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu

  • Surface tension: the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount.

  • Viscosity: a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow.


Tekanan Uap Cairan lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu


ZAT PADAT lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu

Karena interaksi yang kuat, posisi partikel-partikel dalam zat padat tidak berubah terhadap satu dengan yang lain

Amorf

Kristal


Comparison amorphous solids
Comparison: Amorphous solids lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu

Tar, molten glass, molten plastics, and molten butter, consist of large molecules or a mixture of molecules that cannot move readily. As the temperature is lowered, their molecules move more and more slowly and finally stop in random positions. The resulting materials are called amorphous solids or glasses. Such solids lack an ordered internal structure. Common examples include candle wax, butter, glass, and plastics.


Crystals are classified into systems based on the angle their bonds form.

*7 common systems

Isometric, Hexagonal, Tetragonal, Trigonal, Triclinic, Monoclinic, Orthorhombic


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

  • Hexagonal

  • 3 equilateral axes intersect at angels of 60o , 1 vertical axis intersect at 90o to equilateral axes.

  • Hexa-six

Quartz

Beryl

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why1
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

GYPSUM

MONOCLINIC

  • 3 unequal axes and 1 unequal intersection that is not at 90o

  • Mono-one

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why2
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

Sugar

Isometric

  • 3 axes are at right angles, all sides equal length.

  • Iso- same

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why3
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

Tetragonal

  • 3 axes are at right angels, only 2 lateral axes are equal length and it has 4 sides.

  • Tetra-four

WULFENITE

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why4
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

ORTHORHOMBIC

  • 3 unequal axes all at right angles to each other

  • Ortho-unequal

TANZANITE

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why5
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

Amazonite

Trigonal

  • 3 equal length axes, 3 equal intersections (not 90o)

  • Tri- three

Note:

Hexagonal but with 3 sides not 6

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why6
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why? their bonds form.

Triclinic

  • 3 unequal axes and 3 unequal intersections not at 90o

  • Tri-three

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


Using your 3-D structures identify the following into rightful system:

Picture 1

Isometric

Picture 2

Tetragonal

Picture 3

Hexagonal

Picture 4

Trigonal

Picture 5

ORTHORHOMBIC

Picture 6

MONOCLINIC

Picture 7

TRICLINIC


Crystal systems
Crystal Systems rightful system:

System Axes Angles Unique Symmetry Diagram Examples

Isometrica=b=c===90° Four 3-fold Pyrite, Halite, Galena, Garnet, Diamond, Fluorite

Tetragonala=bc===90° One 4-fold Wulfenite, Rutile, Zircon, Chalcopyrite

Hexagonala=bc=120°, ==90° One 6-fold Quartz, Beryl (Emerald), Apatite, Corundum (Ruby, Sapphire)

Orthorhombicabc===90° Three 2-fold Sulfur, Barite, Olivine, Topaz

Monoclinicabc==90°, 90° One 2-fold Orthoclase, Malachite, Azurite, Mica, Gypsum , Talc

Triclinicabc90° None Turquoise, Kyanite, Albite, Plagioclase


Crystal systems1
Crystal Systems rightful system:

System Axes Angles Unique Symmetry Diagram Examples

Isometric

Tetragonal

Hexagonal

Orthorhombic

Monoclinic

Triclinic


Structure of other systems
STRUCTURE OF OTHER SYSTEMS rightful system:

• Struktur NaCl


Some definitions
SOME DEFINITIONS … rightful system:

  • Lattice: 3D array of regularly spaced points

  • Crystalline material: atoms situated in a repeating 3D periodic array over large atomic distances

  • Amorphous material: material with no such order

  • Hard sphere representation: atoms denoted by hard, touching spheres

  • Reduced sphere representation

  • Unit cell: basic building block unit (such as a flooring tile) that repeats in space to create the crystal structure; it is usually a parallelepiped or prizm


Simple cubic structure sc
SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE (SC) rightful system:

  • • Cubic unit cell is 3D repeat unit

  • Rare (only Po has this structure)

  • • Close-packed directions (directions along which atoms touch each other)

  • are cube edges.

• Coordination # = 6

(# nearest neighbors)

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)


Atomic packing factor
ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR rightful system:

  • Fill a box with hard spheres

    • Packing factor = total volume of spheres in box / volume of box

    • Question: what is the maximum packing factor you can expect?

  • In crystalline materials:

    • Atomic packing factor = total volume of atoms in unit cell / volume of unit cell

    • (as unit cell repeats in space)


Atomic packing factor1
ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR rightful system:

a

R=0.5a

close-packed directions

contains 8 x 1/8 =

1

atom/unit cell

Adapted from Fig. 3.19,

Callister 6e.

Lattice constant

• APF for a simple cubic structure = 0.52


Body centered cubic structure bcc
BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC) rightful system:

• Coordination # = 8

Adapted from Fig. 3.2,

Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

• Close packed directions are cube diagonals.

--Note: All atoms are identical; the center atom is shaded

differently only for ease of viewing.


Atomic packing factor bcc
ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR: BCC rightful system:

Adapted from

Fig. 3.2,

Callister 6e.

• APF for a body-centered cubic structure = p3/8 = 0.68


Face centered cubic structure fcc
FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC) rightful system:

• Coordination # = 12

Adapted from Fig. 3.1(a),

Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

• Close packed directions are face diagonals.

--Note: All atoms are identical; the face-centered atoms are shaded

differently only for ease of viewing.


Atomic packing factor fcc
ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR: FCC rightful system:

Adapted from

Fig. 3.1(a),

Callister 6e.

• APF for a body-centered cubic structure = p/(32) = 0.74

(best possible packing of identical spheres)


Fcc stacking sequence
FCC STACKING SEQUENCE rightful system:

• FCC Unit Cell

• ABCABC... Stacking Sequence

• 2D Projection


Hexagonal close packed structure hcp
HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP) rightful system:

Ideally, c/a = 1.633 for close packing

However, in most metals, c/a ratio deviates from this value


Hexagonal close packed structure hcp1
HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP) rightful system:

• ABAB... Stacking Sequence

• 3D Projection

• 2D Projection

Adapted from Fig. 3.3,

Callister 6e.

• Coordination # = 12

• APF = 0.74, for ideal c/a ratio of 1.633


States of matter
STATES OF MATTER rightful system:

  • The Four States of Matter

  • Four States

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

  • Plasma


Kinetic theory of matter
Kinetic Theory of Matter rightful system:

Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion.


States of matter solids
STATES OF MATTER rightful system:SOLIDS

  • Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position.

  • Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.

Heat


States of matter liquid
STATES OF MATTER rightful system:LIQUID

  • Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another.

  • Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume.

Heat


States of matter gas
STATES OF MATTER rightful system:GAS

  • Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely.

  • Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

Heat


Phase changes
PHASE CHANGES rightful system:


Phase changes1
PHASE CHANGES rightful system:


States of matter plasma
STATES OF MATTER rightful system:PLASMA

  • A plasma is an ionized gas.

  • A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields.

  • Plasmas, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

  • Plasma is the

  • common state

  • of matter


States of matter1
STATES OF MATTER rightful system:

LIQUID

PLASMA

SOLID

GAS

Tightly packed, in a regular pattern

Vibrate, but do not move from place to place

Close together with no regular arrangement.

Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other

Well separated with no regular arrangement.

Vibrate and move freely at high speeds

Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles


Some places where plasmas are found
Some places where plasmas are found… rightful system:

1.Flames


2. Lightning rightful system:


3. Aurora (Northern Lights) rightful system:



Cold plasma
COLD PLASMA rightful system:


Cold plasma pen
COLD PLASMA PEN rightful system:


ad