WUJUD ZAT
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WUJUD ZAT. Oleh A. Sjaifullah. Kimia adalah. Pengetahuan yang mempelajari materi dan perubahannya. Materi adalah. Apapaun yang memiliki massa dan menempati ruang. Teori Kinetik. Semua partikel (atoms, molekul dan ion) menyusun materi selalu bergerak secara random dan berinteraksi.

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Wujud zat

WUJUD ZAT

Oleh

A. Sjaifullah


Wujud zat

Kimia adalah

Pengetahuan yang mempelajari materi dan perubahannya

Materi adalah

Apapaun yang memiliki massa dan menempati ruang


Wujud zat

Teori Kinetik

Semua partikel (atoms, molekul dan ion) menyusun materi selalu bergerak secara randomdan berinteraksi


Wujud zat

Wujud zat

  • Cara menyusun partikel

  • Energi partikel

  • Interaksi/jarak antar partikel


Wujud zat

Karakteristik wujud zat

Sifat partikel

wujud

Proximity

Energy

gerakan

Volume

bentuk

padat

close

little

vibrational

definite

definite

cair

close

moderate

rotational

definite

indefinite

gas

far apart

a lot

translational

indefinite

indefinite


Wujud zat

Jika kondisi partikel (susunan, interaksi dan energi) diubah,

maka terjadi perubahan wujud

posisi partikel-partikel zat cair & gas tidak tetap,

Zat cair dan gas dapat dialirkan/berdifusi =(fluida)

Perubahan wujud terjadi dalam siklus air di alam


Wujud zat

Sifat-sifat gas

Salah satu sifat gas adalah dapat memberikan tekanan.

Tekanan gas terjadi akbat dari tumbukan partikel-partikel gas dengan dinding

Tekanan yang disebabkan oleh campuran gas-gas yang ada di udara disebut tekanan atmosfir

Tekanan adalah…..


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Rasakan adanya tekanan gas!!

  • Mengapa tekanan udara sangat penting?

    • Adanya angin

    • Menciptakan mendung dan awan


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Hubungan tekanan dan volume gas Hukum Boyle

P1V1 = P2V2


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Volume and Temperature , tekanan tetap

Hukum Charles

V2

V1

=

T1

T2


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Korek gas, hair spray, tabung LPG akan terasa lebih dingin jika digunakan,

Karena……………..


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Karena partikel gas hampir tidak berinteraksi satu sama lain, jumlah partikel (molekul) gas hanya bisa ditentukan/diukur pada volume, tekanan dan suhu tertentu


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Persamaan keadaan gas ideal.


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Volume molar gas pada STP


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Zat Cair


Properties of liquids

Properties of Liquids

  • Surface tension: the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount.

  • Viscosity: a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow.


Wujud zat

Tekanan Uap Cairan


Wujud zat

ZAT PADAT

Karena interaksi yang kuat, posisi partikel-partikel dalam zat padat tidak berubah terhadap satu dengan yang lain

Amorf

Kristal


Comparison amorphous solids

Comparison: Amorphous solids

Tar, molten glass, molten plastics, and molten butter, consist of large molecules or a mixture of molecules that cannot move readily. As the temperature is lowered, their molecules move more and more slowly and finally stop in random positions. The resulting materials are called amorphous solids or glasses. Such solids lack an ordered internal structure. Common examples include candle wax, butter, glass, and plastics.


Wujud zat

Crystals are classified into systems based on the angle their bonds form.

*7 common systems

Isometric, Hexagonal, Tetragonal, Trigonal, Triclinic, Monoclinic, Orthorhombic


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

  • Hexagonal

  • 3 equilateral axes intersect at angels of 60o , 1 vertical axis intersect at 90o to equilateral axes.

  • Hexa-six

Quartz

Beryl

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why1

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

GYPSUM

MONOCLINIC

  • 3 unequal axes and 1 unequal intersection that is not at 90o

  • Mono-one

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why2

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Sugar

Isometric

  • 3 axes are at right angles, all sides equal length.

  • Iso- same

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why3

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Tetragonal

  • 3 axes are at right angels, only 2 lateral axes are equal length and it has 4 sides.

  • Tetra-four

WULFENITE

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why4

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

ORTHORHOMBIC

  • 3 unequal axes all at right angles to each other

  • Ortho-unequal

TANZANITE

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why5

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Amazonite

Trigonal

  • 3 equal length axes, 3 equal intersections (not 90o)

  • Tri- three

Note:

Hexagonal but with 3 sides not 6

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


What crystal system does this mineral belong to why6

What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Triclinic

  • 3 unequal axes and 3 unequal intersections not at 90o

  • Tri-three

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm


Wujud zat

Using your 3-D structures identify the following into rightful system:

Picture 1

Isometric

Picture 2

Tetragonal

Picture 3

Hexagonal

Picture 4

Trigonal

Picture 5

ORTHORHOMBIC

Picture 6

MONOCLINIC

Picture 7

TRICLINIC


Crystal systems

Crystal Systems

SystemAxesAnglesUnique SymmetryDiagramExamples

Isometrica=b=c===90°Four 3-foldPyrite, Halite, Galena, Garnet, Diamond, Fluorite

Tetragonala=bc===90°One 4-foldWulfenite, Rutile, Zircon, Chalcopyrite

Hexagonala=bc=120°, ==90°One 6-foldQuartz, Beryl (Emerald), Apatite, Corundum (Ruby, Sapphire)

Orthorhombicabc===90°Three 2-foldSulfur, Barite, Olivine, Topaz

Monoclinicabc==90°, 90°One 2-foldOrthoclase, Malachite, Azurite, Mica, Gypsum, Talc

Triclinicabc90°NoneTurquoise, Kyanite, Albite, Plagioclase


Crystal systems1

Crystal Systems

SystemAxesAnglesUnique SymmetryDiagramExamples

Isometric

Tetragonal

Hexagonal

Orthorhombic

Monoclinic

Triclinic


Structure of other systems

STRUCTURE OF OTHER SYSTEMS

• Struktur NaCl


Some definitions

SOME DEFINITIONS …

  • Lattice: 3D array of regularly spaced points

  • Crystalline material: atoms situated in a repeating 3D periodic array over large atomic distances

  • Amorphous material: material with no such order

  • Hard sphere representation: atoms denoted by hard, touching spheres

  • Reduced sphere representation

  • Unit cell: basic building block unit (such as a flooring tile) that repeats in space to create the crystal structure; it is usually a parallelepiped or prizm


Simple cubic structure sc

SIMPLE CUBIC STRUCTURE (SC)

  • • Cubic unit cell is 3D repeat unit

  • Rare (only Po has this structure)

  • • Close-packed directions (directions along which atoms touch each other)

  • are cube edges.

• Coordination # = 6

(# nearest neighbors)

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)


Atomic packing factor

ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR

  • Fill a box with hard spheres

    • Packing factor = total volume of spheres in box / volume of box

    • Question: what is the maximum packing factor you can expect?

  • In crystalline materials:

    • Atomic packing factor = total volume of atoms in unit cell / volume of unit cell

    • (as unit cell repeats in space)


Atomic packing factor1

ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR

a

R=0.5a

close-packed directions

contains 8 x 1/8 =

1

atom/unit cell

Adapted from Fig. 3.19,

Callister 6e.

Lattice constant

• APF for a simple cubic structure = 0.52


Body centered cubic structure bcc

BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC)

• Coordination # = 8

Adapted from Fig. 3.2,

Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

• Close packed directions are cube diagonals.

--Note: All atoms are identical; the center atom is shaded

differently only for ease of viewing.


Atomic packing factor bcc

ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR: BCC

Adapted from

Fig. 3.2,

Callister 6e.

• APF for a body-centered cubic structure = p3/8 = 0.68


Face centered cubic structure fcc

FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)

• Coordination # = 12

Adapted from Fig. 3.1(a),

Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)

• Close packed directions are face diagonals.

--Note: All atoms are identical; the face-centered atoms are shaded

differently only for ease of viewing.


Atomic packing factor fcc

ATOMIC PACKING FACTOR: FCC

Adapted from

Fig. 3.1(a),

Callister 6e.

• APF for a body-centered cubic structure = p/(32) = 0.74

(best possible packing of identical spheres)


Fcc stacking sequence

FCC STACKING SEQUENCE

• FCC Unit Cell

• ABCABC... Stacking Sequence

• 2D Projection


Hexagonal close packed structure hcp

HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)

Ideally, c/a = 1.633 for close packing

However, in most metals, c/a ratio deviates from this value


Hexagonal close packed structure hcp1

HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)

• ABAB... Stacking Sequence

• 3D Projection

• 2D Projection

Adapted from Fig. 3.3,

Callister 6e.

• Coordination # = 12

• APF = 0.74, for ideal c/a ratio of 1.633


States of matter

STATES OF MATTER

  • The Four States of Matter

  • Four States

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

  • Plasma


Kinetic theory of matter

Kinetic Theory of Matter

Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion.


States of matter solids

STATES OF MATTERSOLIDS

  • Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position.

  • Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.

Heat


States of matter liquid

STATES OF MATTERLIQUID

  • Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another.

  • Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume.

Heat


States of matter gas

STATES OF MATTERGAS

  • Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely.

  • Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

Heat


Phase changes

PHASE CHANGES


Phase changes1

PHASE CHANGES


States of matter plasma

STATES OF MATTERPLASMA

  • A plasma is an ionized gas.

  • A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields.

  • Plasmas, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

  • Plasma is the

  • common state

  • of matter


States of matter1

STATES OF MATTER

LIQUID

PLASMA

SOLID

GAS

Tightly packed, in a regular pattern

Vibrate, but do not move from place to place

Close together with no regular arrangement.

Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other

Well separated with no regular arrangement.

Vibrate and move freely at high speeds

Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles


Some places where plasmas are found

Some places where plasmas are found…

1.Flames


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2. Lightning


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3. Aurora (Northern Lights)


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The Sun is an example of a star in its plasma state


Cold plasma

COLD PLASMA


Cold plasma pen

COLD PLASMA PEN


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