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Very Cold (Severe cold in winter; moderate summer with brief hot spells)Site:1. South side of slope to get warmth of winter sun2. Evergreen trees on north/northwest to protect from winter windHouse: 3.Compact shape for less exterior surface area to lose heat4. Most windows on south for suns warmth, fewest on north5. Sunroom for solar heating6. Roof slope to deflect winter winds


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Hot Humid(Summer hot and humid both day and night; moderate winter)Site: 1. North and south exposure (hot west-facing slopes avoided)2. Deciduous trees on east and west for sun protectionHouse: 3. Long, narrow shape; long walls and most glass facing north and south so smallest area faces east and west sun4. Large overhangs and covered porches on east and west for sun protection (skylights and sunrooms avoided)5. Operable windows placed for good cross ventilation and heat exhaust6. High ceilings, so hotter air rises above occupants7. Light exterior colors to reflect suns heat


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Council house 2,City of Melbourne, Australia

  • City of Melbourne The 10 story Council House 2 (CH2) building in Melbourne is very likely Australia's Greenest Building.

  • The building is wrapped with photocell-controlled louvers made of recycled wood which help to temper the interior environment by controlling solar gain.

  • Prominent shower towers are used as part of the cooling system for the building, and a set of large wind turbines on top of the building help to exhaust stale air out of the building. In addition to the visually striking aspects of the building, it also contains a host of features inside that contribute to the building serving as an exemplar of sustainable design.


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South Elevation:

  • ceilings help to absorb excess heat from the building and keep it cool and comfortable in much the same manner as radiant heating.

  • The building's power systems include photovoltaic cells, solar hot-water panels, and a gas-fired co-generation plant.

  • The "shower towers" on the shaded side of the building use evaporative cooling effect to cool air and water for building cooling.

  • Even the ducts on the north and south side of the building are colored differently in order to utilize natural heating and cooling in ventilating the building.

  • The building also incorporates light shelves to reflect natural light into the building and enhance the use of natural rather than artificial light.

  • Glare is also controlled with louvers and other shading devices.

  • The north faade is covered with a vegetated facade to filter sunlight and reduce glare.

  • Artificial lighting is controlled by sensors to turn off when adequate natural light is available.


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Iran desert region


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  • The desert buildings are equipped with air traps, arched roofed and water reservoirs with arched domes for the preservation.

  • The air trap operates with the change of air temperature and the difference of weight of inside and outside the trap. The difference of weight of the air impels a suction process which causes the air to flow either to the bottom or to the top.

  • The operation of modern coolers is similar to the old Iranian air traps which were built at the entrance of the house over underground water reservoirs or ponds built inside the house.

  • addition to sun radiation another reason for the very high walls in the interior configuration of the buildings

  • Every building material in desert town is composed of mud and its derivatives


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