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Reporting results: APA style. Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology. Journal Summary assignment 1 d ue in labs this week Nairne, J. S., Pandeirada, J. N. S., & Thompson, S. R. (2008).

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Reporting results apa style l.jpg

Reporting results: APA style

Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology


Announcements l.jpg

  • Journal Summary assignment1 due in labs this week

    • Nairne, J. S., Pandeirada, J. N. S., & Thompson, S. R. (2008).

  • Bring your textbook (or APA style manual if you’ve got one) to lab this week (using chapter 16 on APA style)

Announcements



Why present your research l.jpg

  • To get the work out there

    • To offer readers an interpretation your data (and perhaps persuade them to believe your theory)

    • To allow testing (falsification) of your theory

    • To spur further research

    • To allow replication

Why present your research?


Misconceptions about scientific writing l.jpg

  • Writing the paper is the routine part of the research process

    • Forces you to commit to your evidence and conclusions

  • Just the facts

    • The facts are just part of the argument that the author is making

  • What you say is all that is important, how you say it isn’t important

    • Good writing leads to higher chance of accomplishing your goals

Misconceptions about Scientific writing


Why a structured format l.jpg

  • To ease communication of what was done process

    • Forces a minimal amount of information

    • Provides a logical framework (for argument)

    • Provides consistent format within a discipline

      • People know what to expect

      • Where to find the information in the article

    • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily

Why a structured format?


Writing resources l.jpg

  • Chapter 16 of your textbook is good too.

  • Also websites to help too.

    • “APA style” - Google hits 1,970,000

      - added “5th edition” 139,000 hits

Writing resources


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Sternberg, R. J. (2003). The psychologist’s companion: A guide to scientific writing for students and researchers. Cambridge University Press, NY.

Writing resources


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  • Psychological writing tends to differ from other academic writings

    • Not a creative writing exercise

      • Presenting an argument based on data and logical reasoning

    • Try to avoid using direct quotes, restate things in your own words.

    • Avoid digression

      • Footnotes are rare, they’re used to elaborate/clarify a point. Try to do so in the text.

      • If long digressions, use the appendix

Writing style


Major goal clarity l.jpg

Major goal: Clarity


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Major goal: Clarity


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  • Write for the reader

    • Think about your audience, what do they already know, what don’t they know

  • Avoid overstatements

    • Be conservative in your claims

  • Emphasize the positive

    • Focus on how the data supports a theory not just on how it refutes another theory

Major goal: Clarity


Major goal clarity13 l.jpg

  • Avoid

    • Jargon when possible

    • Slang and colloquialisms

    • Sexist and biased language

  • Try to be concise

    • Don’t use a whole paragraph when two sentences will do

    • Longer papers don’t mean better papers

    • Eliminate unnecessary redundancy

    • Use simple words (sentences) rather than complicated words (sentences)

Major goal: Clarity


Major goal clarity14 l.jpg

  • Use concrete words and examples writings

  • Check your work!

    • Read it over, make sure that you say what you mean to say

  • Use a consistent format (APA style)

    • It helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on.

    • It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments

  • Communicate with clarity

Major goal: Clarity


Apa style parts of a research report l.jpg

Adolescent Depression 2

We explored attachment in a family context

by applying family systems principles to the

investigation of multiple attachment relationships

within families. This study focused on maternal

adult attachment with respect to family of origin

experiences. We examined associations between

maternal adult attachment and three levels of

family functioning including individual maternal

depression symptoms, dyadic marital satisfaction

and family unit functioning. We found that attachment

security with respect to particular relationships was

differentially associated with different levels of

family functioning.

  • Abstract

  • Body

Adolescent Depression 29

References

Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial

functioning and depression: Distinguishing among

antecedents, concomitants, and consequences.

Psychological Bulletin, 104.

Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory.

San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April).

Transmission of attachment across three generations.

Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society

for Research in Child Development.

Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989).

Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive.

Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202.

Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K.

(1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association

with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,

31, 86-93.

  • References

  • Authors Notes

  • Footnotes

  • Tables

  • Figure Captions

  • Figures

  • Title Page

Adolescent Depression 1

Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION

Adolescent Depression and Attachment

Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye

Purdue University

APA style: Parts of a research report


Title page l.jpg

Title Depression 2 should be maximally

informative while short

(10 to 12 words recommended)

Adolescent Depression 1

Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION

Adolescent Depression and Attachment

Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye

Purdue University

Title Page


Title page17 l.jpg

Adolescent Depression 1

Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION

Adolescent Depression and Attachment

Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye

Purdue University

Order of Authorship sometimes

carries meaning

Title Page


Title page18 l.jpg

Adolescent Depression 1

Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION

Adolescent Depression and Attachment

Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye

Purdue University

Affiliation – where the bulk of

the research was done

Title Page


Title page19 l.jpg

Adolescent Depression 1

Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION

Adolescent Depression and Attachment

Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye

Purdue University

Running head – will go on each

page of published article,

no more than 50 characters

Title Page


Title page20 l.jpg

Short title Adolescent Depression 1 – goes in header (with

page number) on each page of

the manuscript

Adolescent Depression 1

Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION

Adolescent Depression and Attachment

Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye

Purdue University

Title Page


Abstract l.jpg

  • Short summary of entire paper Adolescent Depression 1

    • 100 to 120 words

    • The problem/issue

    • The method

    • The results

    • The major conclusions

  • Recommendation: write this after you’ve finished the rest of the paper

Abstract


Slide22 l.jpg

Start broad Adolescent Depression 1

  • Hourglass shape

  • Background

  • Literature Review

Body


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Narrow focus Adolescent Depression 1

  • Hourglass shape

  • Statement of purpose

  • Specific hypotheses (at least at conceptual level)

Body


Slide24 l.jpg

Most focused Adolescent Depression 1

  • Hourglass shape

- Methods

- Results

Body


Slide25 l.jpg

Broaden Adolescent Depression 1

  • Hourglass shape

  • Discussion

  • Conclusions

  • Implications

Body


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  • Be cohesive Adolescent Depression 1

    • Be relevant (why are the reviewed studies relevant?)

    • Work on the transitions (make the flow logical)

  • Introduction

    • Issue and Background

      • What is it? Why is it interesting/important?

    • Literature Review

      • What has been done? What theories are out there?

    • Statement of purpose

      • What are you going to do and why?

    • Specific hypotheses (at least at conceptual level)

      • What do you predict will happen in your research?

Body


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  • Participants Adolescent Depression 1

    • How many, where they were selected from, any special selection requirements, details about those who didn’t complete the experiment

  • Methods (in enough detail that the reader can replicate the study)

Body


Slide28 l.jpg

  • Design Adolescent Depression 1 (optional)

    • Suggested if you have a complex experimental design, often combined with Materials section

  • Methods (in enough detail that the reader can replicate the study)

  • Participants

Body


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  • Apparatus/Materials Adolescent Depression 1

  • Procedure

    • What did each participant do? Other details, including the operational levels of your IV(s) and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc.

  • Methods (in enough detail that the reader can replicate the study)

  • Participants

  • Design

Body


Slide30 l.jpg

  • Results (state the results but don’t interpret them here) Adolescent Depression 1

    • Verbal statement of results

    • Tables and figures

      • These get referred to in the text, but actually get put into their own sections at the end of the manuscript

    • Statistical Outcomes

      • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs, correlations, etc.

Body


Slide31 l.jpg

  • Discussion (interpret the results) Adolescent Depression 1

    • Relationship between purpose and results

    • Theoretical (or methodological) contribution

    • Implications

    • Future directions (optional)

Body


The rest l.jpg

  • References Adolescent Depression 1

    • Author’s name

    • Year

    • Title of work

    • Publication information

      • Journal

      • Issue

      • Pages

Adolescent Depression 29

References

Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial

functioning and depression: Distinguishing among

antecedents, concomitants, and consequences.

Psychological Bulletin, 104.

Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory.

San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April).

Transmission of attachment across three generations.

Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society

for Research in Child Development.

Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989).

Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive.

Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202.

Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K.

(1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association

with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,

31, 86-93.

When something odd comes up, don’t guess. Look it up!

The rest


The rest33 l.jpg

  • Authors Notes

  • Footnotes

  • Tables

  • Figure Captions

  • Figures

The rest


Figures and tables l.jpg

Chapter 8 Adolescent Depression 1

  • These are used to supplement the text.

  • To make a point clearer for the reader.

  • Typically used for:

    • The design

    • Examples of stimuli

    • Patterns of results

Figures and tables


Checklist things to watch for l.jpg

  • Clarity Adolescent Depression 1

  • Acknowledge the work of others (avoid plagiarism)

  • Active vs. passive voice

    • Active: Bock and Coey (2007) hypothesized that speakers use to much passive voice

    • Passive: It was hypothesized by Bock and Coey (2007) that speakers use to much passive voice

Checklist - things to watch for


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  • Avoid biased language Adolescent Depression 1

    • APA guidelines:

      • Accurate descriptions of individuals (e.g., Asian vs. Korean)

      • Be sensitive to labels (e.g., “Oriental”)

  • Appropriate use of headings

  • Correct citing and references

  • Good grammar

  • APA style checklist

Checklist - things to watch for


Next time l.jpg

  • Variables: Adolescent Depression 1

    • Read chapters 3&5.

  • Bring your APA Publication Manual to lab (if you’ve got one)

  • Don’t forget your first journal summary is due this week in lab

Next time


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