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Minneapolis' Bus 2.0 and its Implications for New Jersey. Alain L. Kornhauser Professor, Op e rations Research & Financial Engineering Director, Program in Transportation Faculty Chair, PAVE (Princeton Autonomous Vehicle Engineering) Princeton University. Committee for a Smart New Jersey

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Minneapolis' Bus 2.0

and its

Implications for New Jersey

Alain L. KornhauserProfessor, Operations Research & Financial EngineeringDirector, Program in Transportation

Faculty Chair, PAVE (Princeton Autonomous Vehicle Engineering)

Princeton University

Committee for a Smart New Jersey

The New Jersey State Chapter of ITS America

2012 Annual Symposium

December 14, 2012


Beginning of serious vehicle automation

2005

2007

Beginning of Serious Vehicle Automation

Link to Presentation

Old House

Not Easy

2005

2007


Evolvution since the darpa challenges
EvolvutionSince the DARPA Challenges..

From the Stanford team…

Feet off

Hands off

Google Team: ~50 People ~ $15M/yr(chump change)


They re addressing the fact that
They’re Addressing the fact that…

We really don’t want to drive…


Addressing the fact that
Addressing the fact that…

We aren’t that good…

>90% crashes involve human error

Google’s :

DOT HS 810 767 Pre-Crash Scenario Typology for Crash Avoidance Research

More on Google: Levandowski Presentation


Evolution by the auto makers
Evolution by the Auto Makers

  • Self-parking systemsvideo(1st version Toyota ’03; US ‘06) MB Park Assist

  • Lane Departure Warning Systems

    • Continental LWDS; BendixAutoVue LDWS; Ford Driver Alert; Bosch Lane Departure and Lane Keeping Support; Continental Driver Assistance Systems

  • Frontal Impact Warning Systems Volvo video

  • MBML350 Safety Features *; Mercedes Benz; MB Lane Keeping Assistance; MB Active Lane Keeping Assist YouTube*

  • MB Attention Assist YouTube;


Evolution by specialized road vehicles snow plows
Evolution by Specialized Road Vehicles: Snow Plows

Minnesota: Snowplow Technology Integration for Driver Assistance http://www.cts.umn.edu/Research/ProjectDetail.html?id=1999005

Alaska: Smart Snowplows http://www.govtech.com/e-government/Smart-Snowplows-Keep-the-Highway-to-Valdez-Alaska-Clear.html

California: Filed-Ready GPS-Based Guidance Methods and Systems for Winter Maintenance Vehicles http://ahmct.ucdavis.edu/pdf/UCD-ARR-09-09-30-03.pdf


Evolution in transit buses
Evolution in Transit Buses

Objective: Efficient Utilization of Narrow Bus-Only Shoulders

  • Methodology: Driver Assistance via

  • Virtual Images,

  • Haptic Feedback, and

  • Tactile Feedback

(It Knows Enough to Steer the Bus, but doesn’t)

http://www.bus2.me.umn.edu/


Bus 2 0 initial demonstration of transit based driver assistance
Bus 2.0: Initial Demonstration ofTransit-based Driver Assistance

Fleet of 10 Gillig low floor buses

Morning and evening express services

22 mile (one-way) travel distance

Reliable travel times in all weather and traffic conditions


Bus 2 0 transit based driver assistance how do they do it
Bus 2.0: Transit-based Driver AssistanceHow Do They Do It?


Bus 2 0 transit based driver assistance how do they do it1
Bus 2.0: Transit-based Driver AssistanceHow Do They Do It?

It Just Works!


The world s best bus rapid transit system
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • It Consists of:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ Port Authority Bus Terminal

      • 223 Departure Gates

      • Readily Accommodates 700 Buses/hr


The world s best bus rapid transit system1
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • It Consists of:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel


The world s best bus rapid transit system2
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • It Consists of:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only


The world s best bus rapid transit system3
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • It Consists of:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are,

      by default, essentially bus-only

    • Many Strategically Located Park&Ride Lots


The world s best bus rapid transit system4
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Pieces are Connected by:

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

      • 2.5 miles


The world s best bus rapid transit system5
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Pieces are Connected by:

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

      • Lane Segregation is by Removable Plastic Peg

      • Yet exceedingly Safe

        • 3 (?) accidents in 41 years, no fatalities.


The world s best bus rapid transit system6
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Pieces are Connected by:

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL Movie)

      • Daily (6am->10am): 1,800 Buses; 65,000 pax

      • Peak Hour: 700 Buses; 35,000 pax

      • Peak Hour: At Capacity!

        • Physical Driver Limit

        • Av. 5 sec. headway


Improving the world s best bus rapid transit system
Improving The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Additional Demand Exists for “BRT 2 NYC”

  • How to increase capacity of XBL?

    • “Take a 2nd Lane”?

      • Political suicide!

    • Widen the Viaduct and Helix?

      • Very expensive/disruptive

    • How about Driver Assistance?

      • Extend Bus 2.0 Technology


Improving the world s best bus rapid transit system1
Improving The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Go Beyond Bus 2.0:

    • add Intelligent Cruise Control with Lane Assist to the 2,000 buses…

      • e.g. Daimler Benz Distronic Plus with Traffic Jam Assist

      • even at $100,000/bus this is just $200M

  • Could achieve sustained 3.0 second headways

    • Increases practical throughput by 50%

      • from 700 -> 1,000 buses/hr; 35,000 -> 50,000 pax/hr

    • Increased passenger capacity comparable to what would have been provided by $10B ARC rail tunnel

  • Institutionally manageable:

    • All Express Buses are leased for 1$/yr from PANY&NJ

    • Facilities (XBL, LT, PABT) are controlled by PANY&NJ DoT

  • Ideal test facility available:

    • Ft. Monmouth


Improving the world s best bus rapid transit system2
Improving The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

Concept Not New:

Concept Makes Even More Sense Now!



2005

2007

Link to Presentation

Old House

Not Easy

2005

2007


Could the best be made even better is the xbl an opportunity
Could the Best be made even Better?Is the XBL an opportunity

  • Specific: “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

  • Currently:

    • Fleet of 3,000 buses use the XBL leading to the Lincoln Tunnel & 42nd Street PA Bus Terminal.

    • Unassisted practical capacity: 700 Buses/hr(5.1 sec headway)

  • By adding Intelligent Cruise Control with Lane Assist to 3,000 buses…

    • e.g. Daimler Benz Distronic Plus with Traffic Jam Assist

  • Could achieve sustained 3.0 second headways

    • Increases practical throughput by 50%

    • from 700 -> 1,000 buses/hr; 35,000 -> 50,000 pax/hr

    • Increased passenger capacity comparable to what would have been provided by $10B ARC rail tunnel.


The world s best bus rapid transit system7
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

      • 2.5 miles; 700 Buses/hr; 35,000 pax/hr; 1,800 Daily Buses; 65,000pax/(6am->10am)


The world s best bus rapid transit system8
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

      • Lane Segregation is by Removable Plastic Peg


The world s best bus rapid transit system9
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only


The world s best bus rapid transit system10
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are,

      by default, essentially bus-only

    • Many Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


The world s best bus rapid transit system11
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL)

      • Lane Segregation is by Removable Plastic Peg


The world s best bus rapid transit system12
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Many Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


The world s best bus rapid transit system13
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Many Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


Extending bus 2 0 technology to substantially enhance new jersey s bus rapid transit system
Extending Bus 2.0 Technology to Substantially Enhance New Jersey’s Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact:For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • There exists:

    • Efficient Boarding/Alighting @ PA Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access/Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Many Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


Extending bus 2 0 technology to substantially enhance new jersey s bus rapid transit system1
Extending Bus 2.0 Technology to Substantially Enhance New Jersey’s Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact: For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • Composed of:

    • an efficient Boarding/Alighting Port Authority Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access and Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Numerous Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


The world s best bus rapid transit system14
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact: For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • Composed of:

    • an efficient Boarding/Alighting Port Authority Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access and Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Numerous Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


The world s best bus rapid transit system15
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact: For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • Composed of:

    • an efficient Boarding/Alighting Port Authority Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access and Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Numerous Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


The world s best bus rapid transit system16
The World’s Best Bus Rapid Transit System

  • Fact: For over 40 years New Jersey has had the World’s Best “Bus Rapid Transit” System!

  • Composed of:

    • an efficient Boarding/Alighting Port Authority Bus Terminal

    • Direct Access and Egress to Exclusive Lanes in the Lincoln Tunnel

    • “495-viaduct” Counter-flow Exclusive Bus Lane (XBL) URL

    • 3+ HOV Lanes on the NJ Turnpike that are, by default, essentially bus-only

    • Numerous Efficiently Located Park&Ride Lots


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