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Baseline surveys and impact analysis M.M. Escalada International Rice Research Institute Los Ba ñ os, Philippines PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Baseline surveys and impact analysis M.M. Escalada International Rice Research Institute Los Ba ñ os, Philippines. Baseline survey. Understand farmers’ needs and circumstances Identify farmers’ perspectives Find out the root cause of farmers practice Determine social, economic,

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Baseline surveys and impact analysis M.M. Escalada International Rice Research Institute Los Ba ñ os, Philippines

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Baseline surveys

and impact analysis

M.M. Escalada

International Rice Research Institute

Los Baños, Philippines


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Baseline survey

Understand farmers’ needs and circumstances

  • Identify farmers’ perspectives

  • Find out the root cause of farmers practice

  • Determine social, economic,

    ecological factors that may

    influence choice of options

  • Identify key stakeholders


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Uses of baseline survey

  • Set the research agenda

  • Test research hypotheses

  • Design extension strategies

  • Evaluate effectiveness of intervention


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How to conduct a

baseline survey

  • Identify the problem or issues

  • Develop survey objectives

  • Develop survey instrument (questionnaire)

  • Pretest the questionnaire

  • Choose survey respondents

  • Implement field survey

  • Code and analyze data


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1- Identify the problem or issues

  • Needs of a given organization or ministry

  • Research priorities

  • Gather information to identify research priorities


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Using theoretical frameworks to examine belief and attitude

Human behavior is guided by:

  • Beliefs about the likely outcomes of behavior and evaluation of outcomes (behavioral beliefs)

  • Beliefs about normative expectations of others and motivation to comply (normative beliefs)

  • Beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or hinder performance of behavior

  • Perceived power of these factors (control beliefs)


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Theory of Planned Behavior


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Theory of Planned Behavior

As a general rule, the more favorable the attitude and subjective norm, and the greater the perceived control, the stronger should be the person’s intention to perform the behavior in question.


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Sample TpB questions

  • Intention

    How true is this?

    Next season, I will use the leaf color chart for N management in my field.

    ____ 1) Definitely not true

    ____ 2) In most cases not true

    ____ 3) May be true

    ____ 4) In most cases true

    ____ 5) Definitely not true


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Sample TpB questions

  • Attitudes towards behavior

    How true is this?

    Using the leaf color chart for N management will increase my yields.

    ____ 1) Definitely not true

    ____ 2) In most cases not true

    ____ 3) May be true

    ____ 4) In most cases true

    ____ 5) Definitely not true


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Sample TpB questions

  • Normative beliefs

    How true is this?

    High yield is important to me.

    ____ 1) Definitely not true

    ____ 2) In most cases not true

    ____ 3) May be true

    ____ 4) In most cases true

    ____ 5) Definitely not true


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Sample TpB questions

  • Subjective norm

    How true is this?

    My neighbor expects me to use the leaf color chart for N management.

    ____ 1) Definitely not true

    ____ 2) In most cases not true

    ____ 3) May be true

    ____ 4) In most cases true

    ____ 5) Definitely not true


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Sample TpB questions

  • Perceived behavioral control

    How true is this?

    Using the LCC as a decision guide for N management makes me feel in control of my rice crop.

    ____ 1) Definitely not true

    ____ 2) In most cases not true

    ____ 3) May be true

    ____ 4) In most cases true

    ____ 5) Definitely not true


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4- Pretest the questionnaire

  • Interviewing a small group of respondents to determine their reactions to draft questionnaire

  • clarity of wording and translation of technical

    terms

  • logical sequence of questions

  • adequacy of response categories

  • clarity of questionnaire instructions

  • estimate duration of interview


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5 -Choosing respondents

  • Standard social science sampling methods

  • multi-stage

  • stratified

  • systematic

  • cluster

  • simple random

  • Choice of sampling technique

  • nature of problem

  • cost and time factors

  • desired precision or reliability


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6 –Implement field survey

  • Select respondents

  • Establish rapport

  • Write down responses accurately

  • Edit responses well

  • Close interview


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7 – Code & analyze data

Simple analysis

  • Determine % of respondents giving specific answers

  • List various ways in which farmers might use new practice

    Complex analysis

  • Use statistical package to encode, process and analyze data

Choice of analytical software

  • Access/cost

  • Ease of use

  • Power


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Impact analysis

An approach which measures the outcomes of an intervention

  • Did the program have the desired effects on individuals, households, institutions and communities?

  • Can those effects be attributed to program intervention?


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What is impact

  • Producing 5,000 posters & 10,000 leaflets

  • Running a daily radio broadcast

  • Training 500 farmers on use of leaf color chart (LCC) for N management

  • Conducting 1,000 farmer field schools

  • Distribution of LCC to farmers


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What is impact


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Impact analysis

  • If a farmer is trained on the use of LCC for N fertilizer management and his rice yield increases, can we say that it is the direct result of the LCC training?


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Why conduct an impact evaluation?

  • How did the project affect the beneficiaries?

  • Were any improvements a direct result of the

    project?

  • Could the program design be modified to improve

    impact?

  • Were the costs justified?

  • Are the resources well spent?


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Impact assessment design

Quantitative approach

  • Use experimental and quasi-experimental designs

  • Treatment and control groups

  • Control groups are selected at random from same population as program participants

  • Control group does not receive program or intervention


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Impact assessment design

Qualitative approach

  • Focus on understanding processes, behaviors and conditions as perceived by individuals being studied

  • Uses relatively open-ended methods in design, data collection and analysis

  • Provide critical insights into beneficiaries perceptions about value of programs

  • Can provide a better understanding of stakeholder perceptions, priorities and conditions that may have affected program impact


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Weaknesses of qualitative approach

  • Subjectivity involved in data collection

  • Lack of comparison group

  • Lack of statistical robustness, given small samples

  • Lack of generalizability to a larger population


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Weaknesses of qualitative approach

  • Validity and reliability depend on methodological skill, sensitivity and training of evaluator

  • Data collected may be misinterpreted if field staff lack sensitivity to social and cultural norms and nonverbal messages

  • Impossible to determine causality of project impact, without a comparison group


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Choosing an impact assessment method

  • Experimental designs are considered the best approach

  • Before-after control group design or “with and without” and “before and after” are strongly recommended

  • Baseline data will allow one to validate integrity of treatment and comparison groups, assess targeting


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Data collection techniques

  • Case studies

  • Focus groups

  • Interviews

  • Observation

  • Survey

  • Document analysis


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1- Case study

Collecting information that can be descriptive or explanatory and can serve to answer the questions of how and why

2- Focus groups

Holding focus group discussions with stakeholders who are familiar with pertinent issues before developing structured questions


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3- Interviews

Asking questions of one of more persons; interviews may be formal or informal, face-to-face or by telephone.

4- Observation

Observing and recording situation in a diary; includes who is involved, what happens; when, where, and how events occur.


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5- Survey

Developing a set of survey questions whose answers can be coded consistently

5- Document analysis

Reviewing documents such as records, training materials, administrative databases, and correspondence


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Impact analysis

  • Impact is creating change.

  • Projects have to be planned to create impact.

    - baseline surveys conducted

    - treatment and control groups designated


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Thank you


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