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Baseline surveys and impact analysis M.M. Escalada International Rice Research Institute Los Ba ñ os, Philippines

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Baseline surveys and impact analysis M.M. Escalada International Rice Research Institute Los Ba ñ os, Philippines. Baseline survey. Understand farmers’ needs and circumstances Identify farmers’ perspectives Find out the root cause of farmers practice Determine social, economic,

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Baseline surveys

and impact analysis

M.M. Escalada

International Rice Research Institute

Los Baños, Philippines

slide2

Baseline survey

Understand farmers’ needs and circumstances

  • Identify farmers’ perspectives
  • Find out the root cause of farmers practice
  • Determine social, economic,

ecological factors that may

influence choice of options

  • Identify key stakeholders
slide3

Uses of baseline survey

  • Set the research agenda
  • Test research hypotheses
  • Design extension strategies
  • Evaluate effectiveness of intervention
slide4

How to conduct a

baseline survey

  • Identify the problem or issues
  • Develop survey objectives
  • Develop survey instrument (questionnaire)
  • Pretest the questionnaire
  • Choose survey respondents
  • Implement field survey
  • Code and analyze data
slide5

1- Identify the problem or issues

  • Needs of a given organization or ministry
  • Research priorities
  • Gather information to identify research priorities
slide6

Using theoretical frameworks to examine belief and attitude

Human behavior is guided by:

  • Beliefs about the likely outcomes of behavior and evaluation of outcomes (behavioral beliefs)
  • Beliefs about normative expectations of others and motivation to comply (normative beliefs)
  • Beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or hinder performance of behavior
  • Perceived power of these factors (control beliefs)
slide8

Theory of Planned Behavior

As a general rule, the more favorable the attitude and subjective norm, and the greater the perceived control, the stronger should be the person’s intention to perform the behavior in question.

slide9

Sample TpB questions

  • Intention

How true is this?

Next season, I will use the leaf color chart for N management in my field.

____ 1) Definitely not true

____ 2) In most cases not true

____ 3) May be true

____ 4) In most cases true

____ 5) Definitely not true

slide10

Sample TpB questions

  • Attitudes towards behavior

How true is this?

Using the leaf color chart for N management will increase my yields.

____ 1) Definitely not true

____ 2) In most cases not true

____ 3) May be true

____ 4) In most cases true

____ 5) Definitely not true

slide11

Sample TpB questions

  • Normative beliefs

How true is this?

High yield is important to me.

____ 1) Definitely not true

____ 2) In most cases not true

____ 3) May be true

____ 4) In most cases true

____ 5) Definitely not true

slide12

Sample TpB questions

  • Subjective norm

How true is this?

My neighbor expects me to use the leaf color chart for N management.

____ 1) Definitely not true

____ 2) In most cases not true

____ 3) May be true

____ 4) In most cases true

____ 5) Definitely not true

slide13

Sample TpB questions

  • Perceived behavioral control

How true is this?

Using the LCC as a decision guide for N management makes me feel in control of my rice crop.

____ 1) Definitely not true

____ 2) In most cases not true

____ 3) May be true

____ 4) In most cases true

____ 5) Definitely not true

slide14

4- Pretest the questionnaire

  • Interviewing a small group of respondents to determine their reactions to draft questionnaire
  • clarity of wording and translation of technical

terms

  • logical sequence of questions
  • adequacy of response categories
  • clarity of questionnaire instructions
  • estimate duration of interview
slide15

5 -Choosing respondents

  • Standard social science sampling methods
  • multi-stage
  • stratified
  • systematic
  • cluster
  • simple random
  • Choice of sampling technique
  • nature of problem
  • cost and time factors
  • desired precision or reliability
slide16

6 –Implement field survey

  • Select respondents
  • Establish rapport
  • Write down responses accurately
  • Edit responses well
  • Close interview
slide17

7 – Code & analyze data

Simple analysis

  • Determine % of respondents giving specific answers
  • List various ways in which farmers might use new practice

Complex analysis

  • Use statistical package to encode, process and analyze data

Choice of analytical software

  • Access/cost
  • Ease of use
  • Power
slide18

Impact analysis

An approach which measures the outcomes of an intervention

  • Did the program have the desired effects on individuals, households, institutions and communities?
  • Can those effects be attributed to program intervention?
slide19

What is impact

  • Producing 5,000 posters & 10,000 leaflets
  • Running a daily radio broadcast
  • Training 500 farmers on use of leaf color chart (LCC) for N management
  • Conducting 1,000 farmer field schools
  • Distribution of LCC to farmers
slide21

Impact analysis

  • If a farmer is trained on the use of LCC for N fertilizer management and his rice yield increases, can we say that it is the direct result of the LCC training?
slide22

Why conduct an impact evaluation?

  • How did the project affect the beneficiaries?
  • Were any improvements a direct result of the

project?

  • Could the program design be modified to improve

impact?

  • Were the costs justified?
  • Are the resources well spent?
slide23

Impact assessment design

Quantitative approach

  • Use experimental and quasi-experimental designs
  • Treatment and control groups
  • Control groups are selected at random from same population as program participants
  • Control group does not receive program or intervention
slide24

Impact assessment design

Qualitative approach

  • Focus on understanding processes, behaviors and conditions as perceived by individuals being studied
  • Uses relatively open-ended methods in design, data collection and analysis
  • Provide critical insights into beneficiaries perceptions about value of programs
  • Can provide a better understanding of stakeholder perceptions, priorities and conditions that may have affected program impact
slide25

Weaknesses of qualitative approach

  • Subjectivity involved in data collection
  • Lack of comparison group
  • Lack of statistical robustness, given small samples
  • Lack of generalizability to a larger population
slide26

Weaknesses of qualitative approach

  • Validity and reliability depend on methodological skill, sensitivity and training of evaluator
  • Data collected may be misinterpreted if field staff lack sensitivity to social and cultural norms and nonverbal messages
  • Impossible to determine causality of project impact, without a comparison group
slide27

Choosing an impact assessment method

  • Experimental designs are considered the best approach
  • Before-after control group design or “with and without” and “before and after” are strongly recommended
  • Baseline data will allow one to validate integrity of treatment and comparison groups, assess targeting
slide28

Data collection techniques

  • Case studies
  • Focus groups
  • Interviews
  • Observation
  • Survey
  • Document analysis
slide29

1- Case study

Collecting information that can be descriptive or explanatory and can serve to answer the questions of how and why

2- Focus groups

Holding focus group discussions with stakeholders who are familiar with pertinent issues before developing structured questions

slide30

3- Interviews

Asking questions of one of more persons; interviews may be formal or informal, face-to-face or by telephone.

4- Observation

Observing and recording situation in a diary; includes who is involved, what happens; when, where, and how events occur.

slide31

5- Survey

Developing a set of survey questions whose answers can be coded consistently

5- Document analysis

Reviewing documents such as records, training materials, administrative databases, and correspondence

slide32

Impact analysis

  • Impact is creating change.
  • Projects have to be planned to create impact.

- baseline surveys conducted

- treatment and control groups designated

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