Unit 10 chapter 34 protection support and locomotion
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Unit 10 Chapter 34 Protection, Support, and Locomotion. Skin: the Body’s Protection. Integumentary System Contains skin and its related parts—hair, nails & glands Functions: Regulates body temperature Receives stimuli from environment Produces vitamin D Protection of underlying tissues.

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Unit 10 Chapter 34 Protection, Support, and Locomotion

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Unit 10 chapter 34 protection support and locomotion

Unit 10Chapter 34Protection, Support, and Locomotion


Skin the body s protection

Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Integumentary System

    • Contains skin and its related parts—hair, nails & glands

  • Functions:

    • Regulates body temperature

    • Receives stimuli from environment

    • Produces vitamin D

    • Protection of underlying tissues


Skin the body s protection1

Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Epidermis:

    • Outer layer of skin, composed of dead, flattened cells

    • Contains Melanin, a pigment that colors the skin & protects cell from damage by radiation


Skin the body s protection2

Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Dermis

  • Inner, thicker portion of the skin

  • Contains blood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, sweat & oil glands


Skin the body s protection3

Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)

  • Below the dermis

  • Contains primarily of fat for cushioning & insulation


Bones the body s support

Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Skeletal Systemdivisions:

  • Axial skeleton

    • Includes the skull, vertebrae, ribs & sternum

  • Appendicular skeleton

    • Includes bones of the arms & legs, and shoulder & hip bones


Bones the body s support1

Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Skeletal system functions:

  • Protection

  • Support

  • Attach muscles

  • Produce blood cells

  • Store minerals


Bones the body s support2

Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Joints

    • Where two bones meet

    • Facilitates the movement of bones in relation to one another


Bones the body s support3

Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Ligaments

    • Connective tissue that attaches one bone to another

  • Tendons

    • Connective tissue that attach muscles to bones


Bones the body s support4

Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Spongy bone

    • Soft bone containing many spaces filled with red marrow

  • Compact bone

    • Dense bone with an inner cavity containing yellow marrow

  • Haversian system

    • Circular area in compact bone containing blood vessels, nerves, and living cells called osteocytes


Unit 10 chapter 34 protection support and locomotion

Muscles for Locomotion


Muscles for locomotion

Muscles for Locomotion

  • Smooth muscle

    • Involuntary movement

    • Found in hollow body organs, i.e. stomach, arteries, iris of eye

    • Spindle-shaped cells, non-striated, one nucleus per cell


Muscles for locomotion1

Muscles for Locomotion

  • Cardiac muscle

  • Involuntary movement

  • Found only in the heart

  • Branching, striated (striped) cells, with one nucleus per cell


Muscles for locomotion2

Muscles for Locomotion

  • Skeletal muscle

  • Voluntary movement

  • Found attached to bones, i.e. biceps, triceps, hamstrings, etc

  • Long, striated (striped) cells, with many nuclei


Extensor and flexor muscles

Extensor and flexor muscles

Click on image to play video.


Muscles for locomotion3

Muscles for Locomotion

Common

Skeletal

muscles


Muscles for locomotion4

Muscles for Locomotion

  • Muscle contraction:

  • Muscle fibers (cells) are made up of smaller units called myofibrils

  • Myofibrils contract (shorten) as filaments, called myosin & actin, slide toward one another


Sliding filament model

Sliding filament model


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