Unit 10 chapter 34 protection support and locomotion
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Unit 10 Chapter 34 Protection, Support, and Locomotion. Skin: the Body’s Protection. Integumentary System Contains skin and its related parts—hair, nails & glands Functions: Regulates body temperature Receives stimuli from environment Produces vitamin D Protection of underlying tissues.

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Unit 10 Chapter 34 Protection, Support, and Locomotion

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Unit 10Chapter 34Protection, Support, and Locomotion


Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Integumentary System

    • Contains skin and its related parts—hair, nails & glands

  • Functions:

    • Regulates body temperature

    • Receives stimuli from environment

    • Produces vitamin D

    • Protection of underlying tissues


Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Epidermis:

    • Outer layer of skin, composed of dead, flattened cells

    • Contains Melanin, a pigment that colors the skin & protects cell from damage by radiation


Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Dermis

  • Inner, thicker portion of the skin

  • Contains blood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, sweat & oil glands


Skin: the Body’s Protection

  • Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)

  • Below the dermis

  • Contains primarily of fat for cushioning & insulation


Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Skeletal Systemdivisions:

  • Axial skeleton

    • Includes the skull, vertebrae, ribs & sternum

  • Appendicular skeleton

    • Includes bones of the arms & legs, and shoulder & hip bones


Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Skeletal system functions:

  • Protection

  • Support

  • Attach muscles

  • Produce blood cells

  • Store minerals


Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Joints

    • Where two bones meet

    • Facilitates the movement of bones in relation to one another


Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Ligaments

    • Connective tissue that attaches one bone to another

  • Tendons

    • Connective tissue that attach muscles to bones


Bones: the Body’s Support

  • Spongy bone

    • Soft bone containing many spaces filled with red marrow

  • Compact bone

    • Dense bone with an inner cavity containing yellow marrow

  • Haversian system

    • Circular area in compact bone containing blood vessels, nerves, and living cells called osteocytes


Muscles for Locomotion


Muscles for Locomotion

  • Smooth muscle

    • Involuntary movement

    • Found in hollow body organs, i.e. stomach, arteries, iris of eye

    • Spindle-shaped cells, non-striated, one nucleus per cell


Muscles for Locomotion

  • Cardiac muscle

  • Involuntary movement

  • Found only in the heart

  • Branching, striated (striped) cells, with one nucleus per cell


Muscles for Locomotion

  • Skeletal muscle

  • Voluntary movement

  • Found attached to bones, i.e. biceps, triceps, hamstrings, etc

  • Long, striated (striped) cells, with many nuclei


Extensor and flexor muscles

Click on image to play video.


Muscles for Locomotion

Common

Skeletal

muscles


Muscles for Locomotion

  • Muscle contraction:

  • Muscle fibers (cells) are made up of smaller units called myofibrils

  • Myofibrils contract (shorten) as filaments, called myosin & actin, slide toward one another


Sliding filament model


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