Going Beyond Basic ADA and S508 Compliance with Universal Design for Learning. Dr. Melissa Engleman Dr. Tara Jeffs East Carolina University Greenville, NC. Overview of Today’s Session. Why Worry About Those People? Those People are You and Me.
Dr. Melissa Engleman
Dr. Tara Jeffs
East Carolina University
Most people will have a disability or experience a
limitation that will temporarily or permanently alter
Many companies will no longer do business with
companies whose products are inaccessible to
people with disabilities. (IBM Report, 2005)
With our aging population, the "mature” customer is the fastest growing group.
Changes in vision & hearing, dexterity & memory are results of aging that create accessibility issues
Few organizations can afford to deliberately miss this market sector. (Access-IT)
(World Health Organization, 2005; Arthritis Foundation, 2005)
(See Gumson Vs. Southwest Airlines, 2004)
[accessibility] complaints. "
p. 1, 1997
•Provision should be in a manner and medium appropriate to the significance of the message and the abilities of the individual.
•There must be a comprehensive policy in advance of any request for auxiliary aids or services. Inclusion of persons with disabilities is required in developing such policy.
The Toyota Case (2001) Rights
Barnes and Noble and Claire's Stores (settled)
Wynne v. Tufts University School of Medicine (1992)
Tyler v. City of Manhattan (1994)
National Federation of the Blind vs. AOL (1999)
Gumson v. Southwest Airlines(2004)
Ninth Circuit in Wong v. Regents (2004)
Tennessee v. Lane (2004)
Rush v. National Board of Medical Examiners, (2003)
Stern v. University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Services (2000)Litigation: Case Law
Must “ Rightseffectively communicate” (Office of Civil Rights)
3. Appropriate Medium
Department of Justice, Disability Rights Division
Equal degree of accessKey Language in the Laws
Many resources exist for finding guidelines: Some simpler than others.
Legalese and “tech talk” Rights
Piecemeal information - no condensed versions
Unknown needsCompliance is Perceived as More Difficult than it Actually is
Recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
14 guidelines, over 60 checkpoints
Three priority levels
Section 508 Standards
Developed by the United States Access Board
Provides 16 measurable standards
All standards are required for complianceWeb Accessibility Standards
Avoid flashing animations or flashes between 2 and 55 hertz Rights(Prevent seizure triggers and distraction. Also they are generally annoying.)
Use relative rather than absolute unit (percentages vs. pixels) This ensures that content fits well no matter the scale.
In hypertext links, text should be specific to context, and “less is more”General Recommendations
(See p. 4 of notebook)
This wouldn’t be legible.
This wouldn’t be legible.
Neither would this.
Benefit from illustrations and graphics, as well as from properly-organized content with headings, lists, and visual cues in the navigation.
Image Dependency: A Problem Rights
1. This page is designed with exact font sizes set. Then each element on the page (paragraph, image, etc.) is placed at exact x/y coordinates that depend on that font size.
2. When the text is zoomed, the carefully placed elements do not change their positions accordingly, so they now overlap. The content is more unreadable than it was before.
Traditionally, what we have done in education is to accommodate individual needs without changing courses.
For examples, we have told deaf students to arrange for sign language interpreters; blind students to secure a Brailled or tape –recorded version of printed materials.
What is Universal Design? accommodate individual needs without changing courses.
“the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.”
(NC State, 1997)
E-Learning requires accessible web access and accessible learning materials
Schmetzke, (2001) found that 81% of distance education “home pages” had major accessibility errors.
The most commonly found problem was failure to provide alternate text.
(Picture of a man, lost in a maze)
In a related study, this researcher
found major accessibility errors across higher education internet sites, as follows:
-referrals to “special” offices
Response from the “accessibility experts” at one for-profit online university:
”Please specify the kind of accessibility you would need and what a screen reader is."
accommodations for students with learning disabilities:
Scribe or reader
Solitary space for testing
They don’t actually fit all.
People with disabilities do NOT tend to have the higher income, education, and employment that are usual accompaniments to computer use.
For online education, one needs more than just a computer. That computer must be hooked up to the Internet, at a reasonable "speed" -- and one must stay on the computer for hours at a time.
Another barrier is availability of high speed services
But…they can be “many sizes fit all”
According to their explanations on the Bb 6.0 website, this course management system does adhere to S508 rules,
However, there are still places in this CMS that are limited in accessibility options. Persons with disabilities are referred to another site, and instructors are given instruction about how to vary assignments, as necessary.
Alternative! Find options that provide flexibility in taking advantage of each student’s strengths.
Courseware provides a consistent format Offered, Regardless of Individual Needs.
Most products now have text and meaningful titles, alternate text, and so on.
Many products have accessibility limits with optional parts such as virtual chat and assessment toolsThe Good news and the Bad News about Course Management Systems
No student is disconnected from
any part of the course due to his
or her functional impairment.
Schenker, K. & Scadden, L., 2002
All other disabilities combined
Total students of students who disclose a disability
Question: to be If students with Learning Disabilities are the most prevalent in our universities and the most rapidly increasing group, why is most accessibility focus for the WWW on physical and sensory accessibility, with little attention to learning needs?
Do your students ask profound questions such as
“How long should the paper be?”
“Why do I have to take this class?”
60% “sensing” learning style prefers direct, concrete experiences; moderate to high degrees of structure, linear sequential learning, and often need to know why before doing something.
In general, students who prefer sensing learning patterns prefer the concrete, the practical, and the immediate.
Schroeder suggests that this research indicates that “there are many paths to excellence and perhaps the greatest contributions we can make to student learning is recognizing and affirming paths that are different from our own”.
These preferences imply very different styles for teaching and learning online - or face-to-face - but online learning can either be rigid or flexible, according to instructor design...
Learning Styles: Only One in Common preferences?
Providing simultaneous options for how to access learning will provide the best experience for everyone.(See notebook section “Faculty Information and UDL” for evaluations of common teaching methods)
Learning is distributed across three interconnected networks:
Exercise your recognition networks' processing by quickly listing the individual objects you recognize in this picture
Exercise your strategic networks by examining this image for a few different purposes. Notice how you look at the image differently depending on your purpose.
Exercise your affective networks' processing by looking at the picture once again .
What strikes you about the picture?
Note something about your self that may have led you to this conclusion.
By designing learning experiences for many possible learners with
various characteristics, ALL learners benefit