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Bell Ringer . Explain this quote in your own words “ If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external or internal controls on government would be necessary ” ~ Federalist No. 51. AGENDA . Bell Ringer PowerPoint Debate.

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Bell ringer

Bell Ringer

Explain this quote in your own words

“If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external or internal controls on government would be necessary”

~ Federalist No. 51


Agenda

AGENDA

Bell Ringer

PowerPoint

Debate


How did the people approve the new constitution

How did the people approve the new Constitution?

WTP 2 Lesson 18


Objectives

Objectives

Students will be able to:

Explain why the ratification process was important

Describe the arguments for and against approving the Constitution

Explain why the Federalists agreed to a Bill of Rights


Why did the framers want the people to ratify the constitution

Why did the Framers want the people to ratify the Constitution?

  • Not a perfect plan of government

  • Fear that state legislatures might not approve of it because it provided less power to states than Articles.

    - People deciding would make the plan (made in secrecy) more legitimate.


Why did the framers want the people to ratify the constitution1

Why did the Framers want the people to ratify the Constitution?

“ We The People…do ordain and establish this Constitution” ~ Preamble of the Constitution

- According to natural rights philosophy expressed here and in the Declaration, people have to provide the “consent of the governed” in order for a government to be legit.


Where in the constitution is ratification outlined

Where in the Constitution is ratification outlined?

Article VII

“The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.”


Ratification of the constitution

Ratification of the Constitution 


Who were the federalists

Who were the Federalists?

The proponents of the Constitution took the name "Federalists.“ emphasizing the idea of federalism provided by the document.

In response to the “Anti-Federalist papers” John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison wrote “the Federalist Papers” under the pen name “Publius” to convince the people of NY to ratify the document.

Perhaps of far greater importance were the Federalist stances of George Washington and Ben Franklin, two prominent figures.


Who were the anti federalists

Who were the Anti-Federalists?

Many prominent Americans were called “anti-federalists” because they opposed “federalists”.

"The Anti-Federalist Papers” written by people using pseudonyms "The Federal Farmer," "Cato," "Brutus," and "Cincinnatus“

Prominent Anti-federalists

George Mason

Edmund Randolph

Elbridge Gerry

John Hancock

Samuel Adams

Richard Henry Lee

Patrick Henry

Mercy Otis Warren


What were the anti federalists objections to the constitution

What were the Anti-Federalists objections to the Constitution?

  • Mistrusted strong central government

  • Feared it created a government too strong for the people to control that would threaten natural rights.

  • State constitutions included bills of rights, often before the plan of government.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may, even in time of peace, raise an army of 100,000 men…[force people to house them]…in order to serve as “necessary and proper” instruments in executing their decrees.”

The Anti-Federalist concern about housing soldiers is addressed in the 3rd Amendment.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid1

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“[To enforce its laws] Congress can call all the militia of as many states as they think proper, and keep them in actual service, without pay, as long as they please, subject to the utmost rigor of military discipline, corporal punishment, and death itself not excepted.”

Anti-federalists were afraid that the government would have the power to use militias to enforce unpopular laws.

When the governor of Arkansas refused to implement school desegregation, President Eisenhower sent in federal troops and federalized the Arkansas National Guard to enforce the ruling.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid2

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may levy and collect capitation to what amount they shall think proper; of which the poorest taxable in the state must pay as much as the richest.”

Congress could impose a flat tax of their choosing on everyone, rich or poor. Congress chose to establish income tax with the 16th Amendment.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid3

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may, under the sanction of that clause in the constitution which empowers them to regulate commerce, authorize the importation of slaves, even into those states where this iniquitous trade is or may be prohibited by their laws or constitutions.”

CONGRESS CAN ALLOW THE IMPORTATION OF SLAVES INTO STATES WHICH FORBID IT

The Congress banned the importation of slaves as soon as it was constitutionally able to do so, in 1808. No state was required to allow slaves contrary to their own laws or constitutions, until the Dred Scott case illustrates that this concern was real.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid4

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may…impose so heavy a stamp duty on newspapers and other periodical publications, as shall effectually prevent all necessary information to the people through these useful channels of intelligence.”

CONGRESS COULD TAX NEWSPAPERS SO MUCH THAT NO ONE WOULD BE ABLE TO AFFORD TO READ THEM AND STAY INFORMED AS VOTERS

This was a real concern, especially considering the Stamp Act that the British has imposed on the colonies. The 1st Amendment protects freedom of speech and press.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid5

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may, by imposing a duty on foreigners coming into the country…also that of our own citizens to any other country.”

CONGRESS CAN PREVENT IMMIGRATION TO AND EMMIGRATION FROM THE US.

Congress could effectively close the borders to immigration, and as a matter of policy has strictly regulated the immigration of people from certain countries for centuries — limitations that continue today.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid6

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may withhold, as long as they think proper, all information respecting their proceedings from the people.”

The Constitution requires that the Congress keep journals and publish them "from time to time." The definition of "time to time" might have allowed the publication of journals to be delayed for a long time, but today, with the Internet, "time to time" means no more than 24 hours.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid7

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may order the elections to be held in the middle of winter, at the city of Philadelphia; by which means the inhabitants of nine-tenths of the state will be effectually deprived of the exercise of their right of suffrage.”

CONGRESS DECIDES WHEN & WHERE WE GET TO ELECT THEM, THIS WILL KEEP PEOPLE FROM VOTING

Congress does have the power to alter state plans for time, place, and manner of election, though it has set a national date for elections. It is still possible that the Congress could exercise this power.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid8

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Trial by a jury of the vicinage is not secured by the constitution. A crime committed at Fort Pitt(sburgh) may be tried by a jury of the citizens of Philadelphia.

These concerns were addressed by the 6th and 7th Amendments.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid9

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“Congress may, if they shall think it for the "general welfare," establish an uniformity in religion throughout the United States. Such establishments have been thought necessary, and have accordingly taken place in almost all the other countries in the world, and will no doubt be thought equally necessary in this.”

CONGRESS CAN FORCE YOU TO WORSHIP WHOMEVER THEY WANT

This concern was addressed by the 1st Amendment.


What were some anti federalist concerns and were they valid10

What were some Anti-Federalist concerns and were they valid?

“No state can encourage its own manufactures either by prohibiting or even laying a duty on the importation of foreign articles.”

This is true — but importers would have had to contend with thirteen different sets of regulations, which is the way things worked under the Articles of Confederation.


Why did the federalists agree to add the bill of rights to the constitution

Why did the Federalists agree to add the bill of rights to the Constitution?

To get support for ratification, Federalists agreed to include the 1st ten amendments to the Constitution.


Exit card on same sheet as bell ringer

Exit Card, on same sheet as Bell Ringer

1. Explain why the ratification process was important

2. Describe a argument for and against approving the Constitution

3. Explain why the Federalists agreed to a Bill of Rights


Debate would our class ratify the new constitution

DEBATE: Would our class ratify the new constitution?

Using the arguments on pgs. 160-161, your group will answer

  • Does the National Government have too much power?

  • Does the Constitution provide for republican government?

  • Does the Constitution need to have a bill of rights?


Debate would our class ratify the new constitution1

Anti-federalists

Allen

Brien

Gauvin

Kenton

Morin

Nooth

Persha

Sargent

Willey

Federalists

Bowen

Collins

Fields

Greer

Martin

Mayhew

Parker

Stewart

Wescom

DEBATE: Would our class ratify the new constitution?


Debate would our class ratify the new constitution2

Anti-Federalist

Q1 Statement

Q1 Rebuttal

Q2 Statement

Q2 Rebuttal

Q3 Statement

Q3 Rebuttal

Federalist

Q1 Statement

Q1 Rebuttal

Q2 Statement

Q2 Rebuttal

Q3 Statement

Q3 Rebuttal

DEBATE: Would our class ratify the new constitution?

For each question, each side is responsible for a two-minute argument and a rebuttal (response) to the argument. Individuals should be assigned to each task.


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