How advances in Ocean/Sea transport have lead to reductions in distance friction & time-space conver...
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How advances in Ocean/Sea transport have lead to reductions in distance friction & time-space convergence . History of Ocean Transportation. X000 BC - Rafts made by tying logs together- Steered by one person - Used to cross rivers and lakes- transported goods/ took people across the river

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How advances in Ocean/Sea transport have lead to reductions in distance friction & time-space convergence

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How advances in ocean sea transport have lead to reductions in distance friction time space convergence

How advances in Ocean/Sea transport have lead to reductions in distance friction & time-space convergence


History of ocean transportation

History of Ocean Transportation

X000 BC- Raftsmade by tying logs together- Steered by one person - Used to cross rivers and lakes- transported goods/ took people across the river

4000 BC- Egyptians made reed boatsthat had a mast and sails - Used on River Nile

2500 BC- Egyptians built wooden boats that could sail across oceans

1550 BC to 300 BC- Ancient Greeks used the galley, a man-powered sailing vessel, to travel and trade and fight with their neighbours

1000 AD - Viking longboats- had sails and up to 60 people who rowed the ship. The ship was long and narrow - able to travel on the open sea as well as along rivers

1100 AD- Chinese Junks- sailing boats with a rudder for steering boats, battens on the sails to give them greater strength. Had watertight compartments - Used for fighting and transporting

1450 AD onwards- three and four masted wooden sailing ships - Used as battleships, exploring, trade vessels

1800 AD-Clipper Ships- fast sailing ships with long, slim hulls and tall masts


Ocean transportation after industrialization

Ocean Transportation after industrialization

1819 AD-Steamships- combined steam and wind power - Used to cross the Atlantic

1845 AD- Ocean-going liners made of iron- Driven by a propeller

1880 AD- Stern wheelers- Steam driven river boat with rear paddles

1910 AD- Sailing ships used diesel power instead of coal (using oil)

1955 AD-Hovercraft- capable of high speed (up to 140 km/hr)

1959 AD-Nuclear-powered cargo ships- can sail 3 and a half years without refuelling

1980 AD- Hydrofoil- used as ferries or water taxis

- Container ships- carry cargo in huge metal boxes

- Supertankers- one of the largest ships- used to transport oil

1990 AD- Cruise liners- Can carry hundreds of people - used for floating holidays - have restaurants, shops, cinemas etc.

- Nuclear-powered aircraft carriers- used for protecting the country

- Nuclear-powered submarines- used for protecting the country


Overview of sea transport

Overview of sea transport


Containerization

Containerization

  • First used in the 18th century but was not popularised until after World War 2, when container sizes were standardised

  • Greatly increased speeds (reducing travel time- time space convergence)

  • in 2009, 90% of the world’s non-bulk cargo was transported by ship


Other purposes of ocean transportation

Other purposes of Ocean Transportation

  • Tankers-transports fluids such as crude oil, petroleum, chemicals, vegetable oil, wine and other foods

  • Ferries (water taxi)-a form of transport carrying passengers and sometimes their vehicles

  • Cruise Ships-cruising has become a major part of the Tourism industry. Passenger ships

  • Cable layer-a deep sea vessel used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications and electricity.


Video for more information

Video for more information


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