Chapter 14
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Chapter 14. Leading Teams. Team. A unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal. Shared mission and collective responsibility are emphasized. Types of Teams. Vertical (Functional, Command) (e.g., Accounting Dept.)

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Leading Teams


Chapter 14

Team

  • A unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal.

  • Shared mission and collective responsibility are emphasized.


Types of teams

Types of Teams

  • Vertical (Functional, Command)

    • (e.g., Accounting Dept.)

  • Horizontal (Cross-Functional)

    • Self-Managing (Continuous)

    • Problem-Solving (Periodic)

      (e.g., Quality Circle)

  • Special Purpose (Task Force)

    • (temporary)

    • (may be Vert., Horiz, or Combination)


Virtual team

Virtual Team

  • A team that uses technology so that geographically distant members can collaborate.

  • Can be any of the previously mentioned types.


Team size

Team Size

  • Small Teams (2 to 4 members)

    • Easier to reach agreement

    • Decisions made more quickly

    • More participation per member

    • Members report greater satisfaction


Team size1

Team Size

  • Large teams (12 or more) - Positive Aspects

    • More ideas

    • Bolder or riskier actions (sometimes negative)

    • More acceptance of decisions by others

  • Large teams (12 or more) - Negative Aspects

    • More time consuming

    • Subgroups often form, resulting in conflicts

    • Less member satisfaction.


Team member roles

Task Specialist (Helps Team Accomplish Task):

Initiation of ideas

Give opinions

Seek information

Summarize

Energize

Socioemotional(Support Emotional Needs and Social Unity):

Encourage

Harmonize

Reduce tension

Follow

Compromise

Team Member Roles


Team member roles1

Team Member Roles

High

Task Specialist

Role

Dual

Role

Member Task Behavior

Nonparticipator

Role

Socioemotional

Role

Low

Low

Member Social Behavior

High


Team cohesiveness

Team Cohesiveness

  • The extent to which team members are attracted to the team and motivated to remain in it.


Determinants of team cohesiveness

Determinants of Team Cohesiveness

  • Team interaction (frequency)

  • Personal attraction to team

  • Relatively Small Size

  • Shared goals (and dependence)

  • Competition (external threats / common enemy)

  • Team success

  • Favorable evaluation by outsiders


Consequences of team cohesiveness

Consequences of Team Cohesiveness

  • Morale/Satisfaction is raised

  • Performance/Goal Accomplishment

    • Productivity tends to more uniform (Norms, Culture affect it)

    • Productivity level depends on relationship of workers with management


Team conflict

Description:

Antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another.

Causes:

Scarce resources

Jurisdictional ambiguities

Communication breakdown

Personality clashes

Power and status differences

Goal differences

Team Conflict


Styles to handle conflict

Styles to Handle Conflict

Assertive

Competing(Dominating)

When quick, decisive action is vital--emergencies or urgent cost cutting

Assertiveness

Unassertive

Uncooperative

Cooperative

Cooperativeness


Styles to handle conflict1

Styles to Handle Conflict

Assertive

Competing

When an issue is trivial and there is no chance of winning, or a delay is needed to gather more information

Assertiveness

Avoiding

Unassertive

Uncooperative

Cooperative

Cooperativeness


Styles to handle conflict2

Styles to Handle Conflict

Assertive

Competing

Assertiveness

Compromising

When goals are equally important, opponents have equal power, or time pressure makes a decision expedient

Avoiding

Unassertive

Uncooperative

Cooperative

Cooperativeness


Styles to handle conflict3

Styles to Handle Conflict

Assertive

When people realize they are wrong, an issue is more important to others

Competing

Assertiveness

Compromising

Avoiding

Accommodating

Unassertive

Uncooperative

Cooperative

Cooperativeness


Styles to handle conflict4

Styles to Handle Conflict

Assertive

Competing

Collaborating

When both concerns are very important, merged solution is better, commitment is needed

Assertiveness

Compromising

Avoiding

Accommodating

Unassertive

Uncooperative

Cooperative

Cooperativeness


Resolving intergroup conflict

Resolving Intergroup Conflict

(What 3rd parties can do to facilitate collaborating, etc.)

  • Emphasize Superordinate goals

  • Bargaining/Negotiation

  • Mediation

  • Improve communication

  • Provide well-defined tasks

  • Reduce Task Interdependence


Potential benefits of teams

Potential Benefits of Teams

  • Level of effort (and Performance Level)

  • Satisfaction of members

  • Expanded job knowledge and skills

  • Organizational flexibility.


Opposition to teams

Opposition to Teams

  • Management

  • Unions

  • Workers who lead teams

  • Other Workers


Potential costs of teams

Potential Costs of Teams

  • Power realignment (Mgmt, Unions)

  • Free riding (Team Members)

  • Coordination costs (Mgmt, Members)

  • Legal hassles (Unions vs. Mgmt)

  • Stress from responsibility (Members).


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Teamwork may not always be best, but often is the best approach - Weigh the Benefits vs. the Costs

  • Activities such as persuasion, training, and special rewards may be necessary to implement implement teamwork


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