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第 8 章 现代微型计算机 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 8 章 现代微型计算机. 8.1 80x86 系列微处理器 8.2 微型计算机体系结构 8.3 存储管理技术 8. 4 多任务管理与 I/O 管理 8. 5 现代微型计算机中断系统. 8.1 80x86 系列微处理器. 8.1.1 16 位80 X86 微处理器. 1. 8088微处理器 Intel 公司在推出8086之后, 推出了介于16位与8位之间的准16位微处理器8088。 8088与8086之间的区别主要在于8088对外只有8根数据线引脚,访问16位的操作数需要二个总线周期。 8088的这一特点使它能够十分方便地与8位接口芯片相连接。

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第 8 章 现代微型计算机

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8

8

8.1 80x86

8.2

8.3

8.4I/O

8.5


8 1 80x86

8.1 80x86

8.1.1 1680X86

1 8088

  • Intel8086 168168088

  • 808880868088816

  • 80888

  • 1980IBM808816 IBM-PC


8

28018680286

  • Intel,80186

  • 1982Intel16 80286135MHz~25MHz162416M

  • 80286CPU


8

80286CPU

  • 8086201MDOS

  • 80286CPU

  • 80286CPU

    • BIUAUIUBU

    • EU:

  • IBM80286CPUIBM-PC/AT


8

Intel80286CPU

8-1


8

8.1.2 3280X86

180386

  • 1985Intel3280386

  • 27.516MHz33 MHz323232

  • 80386CPUMMUBIU

  • 8038638086


8

Intel80386CPU

8-2


8

280486

  • 1989 Intel1203280486

  • 80486

    • 80386

    • 80387

    • 8KBCache

  • 8048680486DX

  • 80486Cache


  • 8

    8.1.3 Pentium

    1Pentium

    • 1993Intel32PentiumP53206432

    • Pentium3UV

    • 8


    8

    • Pentium16KBCache8KBCache8KBCache

    • Pentium

    • 8086

    • 1996Intel32Pentium MMX57MMXSIMD

    • IBMAppleMotorolaPowerPCRISCAMDK5CyrixM1


    8

    2

    • 1996IntelPentium Pro

      • 550

      • 643664GB23664TB

    • 19975IntelPentiumII2,P632

      • PentiumII750;

      • MMXMMX;

      • L1 Cache32KB512KBL2 CacheCPU;

      • PentiumIIFSBL2 Cache;

      • RISCx86


    8

    • PentiumII40


    8

    • 19992IntelPentium III

      • 9502800;

      • FSB133MHz;

      • 256KBL2CacheCPU;

      • 64256;

      • 70SSE;

      • PentiumIIIPSN;

    • IntelCeleronXeronPentiumIIPentiumIII

    • AMDAthonK7


    8

    Pentium III

    8-3


    8

    3

    • 1999AMDX8664AMD64OpteronAthlon 64

    • IntelIA-32eIntel Achicture-32 ExtendIntel 32EM64TIntel Extended Memory 64 TechnologyIntel 64PrescottPentium 4


    8

    • 32x863264RAXRBX864bitR8~R1564bitRIP6464

    • EM64TIA-32IA-32eIA-32648086IA-32e3264326464


    8

    • AMDIntel64L1 CacheL2

    • Intel2006CoreCorePrescott3114


    8

    • CoreCore4+1+1

    • CoreSSE4

    • CoreCore 2 Duo 2


    8

    64

    • 2001529Intel64Itanium128

    • ItaniumIA-6480X8664


    8

    8.1.4 32

    • 80X86163232

    • 1.

    • 1680X86432EAXEBXECXEDX168AXBXCXDXAHALBHBL......


    8

    2.

    • 432ESIEDIEBPESP16SIDIBPSP

    • 32EIP16IP


    8

    • 42FSGS

    • 161613

    • 64Bits

    • Local Descriptor Table, LDT

    • Global Descriptor Table, GDT

    • 13


    8

    • 16Table Indicator, TI

    • 16(RPL)0~3

    • 64bits


    8

    • 324

      • GDTR

      • IDTR

      • LDTR

      • TR


    8

    3 .

    • 32EFLAGS2IOIOPL8086VM

    • 32532CR0~CR4CR0PE=1PG=1CR3

    • 8

    • DR0~DR72TR6~TR7


    8

    8.1.5 32

    • 32

    • 1680X86201MB00000H1KB

    • 320

    • 3216


    8

    • 32

    • 32

      3. 8086

    • 80868086

    • 808680861MB8086


    8

    • System Management Mode , SMM

    • SMM

    • SMM


    8

    8.2

    8.2.1 80X86

    • IBM-PCPC/XT

    • IBM8088CPUPCIBM-PC,

    • IBMIBM-PC/XT10~20MB

    • PC/XTCPU8088CPU62XT


    8

    • XT820CPU4.77MHz8088CPU4XT1.2MB/S

    • 8088CPUROMRAM/DMA862XT

    • 62256KDRAM


    8

    IBM-PC/XT

    8-5


    8

    • PC/AT

    • CPUIBMIBM PC/AT

    • PC/AT8XT16AT;

    • IntelATISAIndustry Standard Architecture

    • ISA2416157DMA6~8MHz8MB/S


    8

    • ISAXTISAXTXTISAISA

    • CPUCPUCPUI/O

    • L2 Cache DRAM CPU80486AT/


    8

    IBM-PC/AT

    8-6


    8

    8.2.2 Pentium

    • 1987Intel8086 CPU3-4

    • Intel19911993PCICPUISA/EISA/133MB/S

    • PentiumPentium + PCI


    8

    1

    • Host BusPCIISA8-7

    • Cache

    • PCI

    • ISA

    • CPU / PCIHost BridgePCI / ISAPCI / PCI


    8

    • CPU / PCICPU / PCIAGPPCI

    • PCI / ISAIDE8259DMA8253/8254/USBI/O APIC

    • Super I/O

    • -

    • Intel-440BX440TX

    • Pentium IICPUI/O APICCPUCPU


    8

    PentiumII

    8-7


    8

    2

    • -PCIPCIIntel

    • Memory Control Hub, MCH

      • I/OI/O Control Hub , ICH

      • AGP

      • MCHAGPGMCH


    8

    • I/OICHI/O

      • 2IDEPrimary IDE , Secondary IDE

      • 24USB

      • PCIPCI

      • AC'97

      • LPC I/FSuper I/O

      • FWHBIOSICH


    8

    • Intel810815820850860845

    • PC'99ISAPCI/ISA

    • .


    8

    Pentium

    8-8


    8

    8.2.3 Intel

    • /

    • /DMA

  • Intel865915925965


  • 8

    1 Intel 845

    82845PIOICH482801DB

    • mPGA478P4Celron D533MHz

    • SDR/DDR SDRAM

    • 1X/2X/4X AGP

    • USB2.0


    8

    2 Intel 865

    865MCH82865PEIOICH5/ICH5R82801EB

    • mPGA478P4 Celeron DHyper ThreadingHT800MHz/533MHz/400MHz

    • DDR4006.4GB/s64/8*400MHz*2

    • 8X/4X AGP

    • ATAGb


    8

    Intel 865PC


    8

    3 Intel 965

    Intel 965IOICH882801HBIntel G965 ExpressMCHIntel 82Q965

    • CPUPentium D, Core 2 Duo1066MHz800MHzLGA775

    • PCI Express x168GB/sAGP 8X3.5

    • 6PCI Express X1

    • DDR2-6678GB

    • 6ATASATA


    Intel g965

    Intel G965


    8

    8.3

    8.3.1


    8

    1

    • Chache


    8

    1

    • Chache

      • 32KB

      • CacheCPU

      • Cache

      • Cache

      • Cache


    8

    2

    • Cache


    8

    2

    • Cache

    • Cache

    • Cache

      • Cache

    • /CacheCache//

    • CacheCache


    8

    1

    :

    Cache:

    • 16KB

    • 1632bit=4Byte ,256

    • 86

    • 324GB

    • 1886

      Cache


    8

    8-11


    8

    • Cache12345678H

      =048D1H =59H =38H

      Cache 59HTag048D1H

    • 12345644H =048D1H =59H =04H

      59H Cache59H04H


    8

    • 12341678H=048D0H=59H=38H

    • 59H

    • 048D0 H 1Cache59H 048D0 H

    • Cache

    • CacheCache


    8

    2

    Cache

    3216KB Cache

    266

    Cache

    • Cache


    8

    8-12


    8

    3

    • Cache

    • 3216KB CacheCache128

      Cache716

      1976

      128Cache


    8

    • 0#Cache0

    • 1#Cache1

    • ......

    • Cache


    8

    8-13


    8

    3

    • CacheCache

    • Cache

    • 1 FIFO

      2 LRU


    8

    4 Cache

    • CacheCache

      1 Write Back

      Cache

      2 Write Through

      Cache

      Cache


    8

    5 Brust Bus Cycle

    • Cache

    • PentiumCache6464Bits8

    • Cache

    • 864BitsCache


    8

    8.3.2

    • CPU


    8

    :

    • 80386MMU


    8

    1

    • 8086CPU

    • 3232Bit20Bit4Bit2Bit64Bit

    • Global Descriptor Table, GDT GDTGDTR

    • Local Descriptor Table, LDT LDTLDTR


    8

    • 8-15

    • GDTLDT3264Bit

    • 162132=214232232214=246=64TB


    8

    8-14


    8

    2.

    • 803864KB32Bits3220121210244KB


    8

    • 1024 32Bits1024

      32

      • 10

      • 10

      • 12


    8

    8-15


    8

    • 8-16

      • 10

      • 10

      • 1232

    • CR34104

    • 1024TLB


    8

    • Pentium IIPDPT4KB324

      • 2PDPTPDPT

      • 9

      • 924

      • 122436


    8

    3 80X86

    32X86CR0PE

    • PE=01680X86201M

    • PE=1CR0PG1/PG=0


    8 4 i o

    8.4 I/O

    • 32


    8

    8.4.1

    1

    40-3

    • 00

    • 1

    • 30~2


    8

    1

    2bitDPL

    2

    2RPL

    3

    CPLCSSS2CPL


    8

    • CPLRPLDPL


    8

    2

    • TSSTask Status Segment

  • TSSI/O8-17TSSTR


  • 8

    8-16


    8

    3

    • GDTBB=1

    • 16TRTSSTR64TSSGDT

    • LTRSTRTR16LTR0


    8

    JMPCALL

    • GDTTSS

    • JMPCALL

    • EFLAGSEIPTSS

    • TR

    • TSSEFLAGSEIP

    • CS:EIP


    8

    • JMPCALLIRETINT-n

    • 3216

    • CALLTSSTSSEFLAGSNTNesting Task1TSSTSS


    8

    JMPCALL

    • CSEIP

    • CALLCS:EIPCSEIP

    • CALLJMP16


    8

    8.4.2 I/O

    I/OI/O

    • EFLAGSIOPL2bitsI/O

    • TSS64KbitsI/OIOMI/O0I/O


    8

    • 8086IOMI/O1

    • CPLCPLEFLAGSIOPLI/OIOMIOM1

    • IOMI/OI/O


    8

    8.5

    8.5.1

    1 IDT

    • (IDT)

    • 64Bits1632


    8

    • 64Bits168-18

    • P=1DPL

    • DOSIVTIDTIDTR


    8

    8-17


    8

    2

    :

    • EFLAGSCSEIP

    • EFLAGSIFTF

    • CS

    • CSGDTLDTCSEIP

    • CS:EIP


    8

    • IFIF

    • EFLAGSCSEIPSS:ESPTSS


    8

    • TR

    • GDTTSSTR

    • EFLAGSEIPTSS

    • TSSEFLAGSEIP

    • CS:EIP

    • JMPCALL


    8

    8.5.2 I/OICH

    • I/O

    • 8-10


    8

    1

    • PC8259A

    • PCSERIRQ8-18


    8

    8-18


    8

    SERIRQPCIPCICLK

    :

    • 468PCI

    • ICH


    8

    • PCIPCIISA

    • SERIRQ

    • SERIRQICH


    8

    • ICH2-3PCI

    • SERIRQ


    8

    • Super I/OSuper I/OLPC I/FICH8-8

    • ICHSERIRQ8259A


    8

    2 ICH8259A

    • ICH8259A

    • 8259A20H21HIRQ0, 1, 3~7

    • 8259AINTRIR2IRQ8~150A0H0A1H


    8

    8.5.3 APIC

    • Advanced Programmable Interrupt ControlorAPIC


    8

    APIC

    1Local APIC8259A8254APICAPIC

    2I/O APICICH24APIC

    3APICAPICD0APICD1APICCLKLocal APICI/O APIC

    • APIC


    8

    APIC8259A

    • APIC

    • APIC;

    • 24


    8

    1. 80888086......P4

    2. MMX

    3.

    4. 32

    5. XTISA

    6.

    7.

    8


    8

    8. CPUCacheCache

    9.

    10. Cache

    11.

    12.

    13.

    14.

    15. 32


    8

    16.

    17. 32I/O

    18.

    19.

    20. APIC


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