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DNA & Translation. Gene : section of DNA that creates a specific protein Approx 25,000 human genes Proteins are used to build cells and tissue Protein synthesis involves two processes: 1) Transcription 2) Translation. DNA and Translation. Transcription Review.

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Presentation Transcript

DNA &

Translation


Dna and translation

Gene: section of DNA that creates a specific protein

Approx 25,000 human genes

Proteins are used to build cells and tissue

Protein synthesis involves two processes:

1) Transcription

2) Translation

DNA and Translation


Transcription Review

  • Transcription takes place in the nucleus

    • 1) DNA double helix is broken apart

    • 2) mRNA nucleotides match up

    • 3) Finished mRNA detaches, and moves to a ribosome


Codon: Combination of 3 mRNA nucleotides

Each mRNA codon matches with 1 of 20 amino acids

Codon AAA = Lysine

Codon GUU = Valine

Codon AUG = Methionine (Start)

Codons UAA or UAG or UGA = Stop

The Genetic Code


Translation Overview

  • Defined: Process of making proteins

    • Step 1: mRNA enters ribosome

    • Step 2: Ribosome reads one mRNA codon at a time

    • Step 3: tRNA delivers amino acids until a protein is created


Translation details

Translation begins when the mRNA codon “AUG” is reached

Each mRNA codon matches with a specific amino acid

AUG = methionine

GCU = alanine

tRNA carries over the proper amino acid

tRNA anticodon matches with the mRNA codon

One by one, amino acids are linked together

Translation ends when a “stop” codon is reached

End result: Polypeptide (protein)

Translation Details




Practice problem
Practice Problem

Threonine

T G A

A C U

U G A


Practice problem1
Practice Problem

Lysine

T T C

A A G

U U C


Interactive

Protein

Synthesis


Quick review
Quick Review

  • Every DNA gene codes for a specific protein

  • Codon/anticodon match guarantees proper amino acid

  • Many amino acids link to make one protein

video clip

Fast forward 50 seconds


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