Chapter 14 Using Tests in Clinical and Counseling Settings - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings
Download
1 / 29

  • 227 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 14 Using Tests in Clinical and Counseling Settings. Assessment vs. Testing. Tests are focused and specific. Clinical “assessment” includes a broad info-gathering and interpretation. The Role of Managed Care. Demand for greater accountability.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Chapter 14 Using Tests in Clinical and Counseling Settings

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

Chapter 14Using Tests in Clinical and Counseling Settings


Assessment vs testing

Assessment vs. Testing

  • Tests are focused and specific.

  • Clinical “assessment” includes a broad info-gathering and interpretation.


The role of managed care

The Role of Managed Care

  • Demand for greater accountability.

  • Demand for short-term therapy. Clients are expected to learn coping skills quickly.

  • Reluctance to pay for extensive and expensive testing.

  • Greater use of the psychiatric model of giving drugs.

  • Emphasis on cost saving and efficiency.


3 models of how testing is used by clinicians and counselors

3 Models of How Testing Is Used by Clinicians and Counselors

  • Info-gathering model

  • Therapeutic model

  • Differential treatment model


Information gathering model

Information-gathering Model

  • Provides standardized comprisons with others.

  • Makes predictions about real world setting.

  • Provides baseline measure for evaluating success of treatment.


The therapeutic model

The Therapeutic Model

  • Assessment leads to dialog that facilitates behavioral change; i.e., self-discovery and insights.


The differential treatment model

The Differential Treatment Model

Testing provides data for evaluating treatments.


Tests used for diagnosis and intervention

Tests Used for Diagnosis and Intervention

  • Diagnosis: indentifying the client’s problem or disorder. Also called screening.

  • Can be informal.

  • May involve a DSM-IV category and label.

  • Diagnosis leads to the design of an intervention or treatment plan. This process varies with the professional making the judgment (i.e., unreliably).


The clinical interview

The Clinical Interview

  • Structured: predetermined set of questions. May be scored. Leads to diagnosis.

  • Nondirective clinical interview: few predetermined questions, most are ad hoc…flexible, but can lead to hypothesis confirmation bias (i.e., seeking info to confirm a predetermined hunch).


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

  • Semistructured: some predetermined questions, some open-ended, plus follow-up questions.


Dangers of the nondirective interview

Dangers of the Nondirective Interview

  • Hypothesis confirmation bias: seeking info to confirm a predetermined hunch; e.g., false memory syndrome.

  • Self-fulfilling prophecy: Interviewer’s expectations influence the client’s actual responses.


Structured personality tests

Structured Personality Tests

  • Objective, self-report measures of psychopathological behavior; e.g., MMPI-2 (Sample report)


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

  • Objective, self-report measures of normal personality

  • 16 Personality Factor Inventory (16PF)

  • California Personality Inventory (CPI)

  • Strong Interest Inventory


Projective techniques

Projective Techniques

Storytelling

  • Rorschach Inkblot Technique (Criticism)


Projective techniques1

Projective Techniques

Storytelling (cont’d)

2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

Projective Drawing

1. House-Tree-Person (HTP)

2. Draw-A-Person Technique


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

Sentence Completion Test


Neuropsychological tests

Neuropsychological Tests

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)

  • Event-related potential (ERP)

  • Imaging techniques; e.g., PET, MRI


Developmental applications psychopathological applications

Developmental Applications:Psychopathological Applications

  • Anxiety: specific brain structures (e.g., temporal lobe) and neurotransmitters.

  • Depression can affect test performance.

  • Schizophrenia has been linked to brain dysfunction.


Specialized tests for clinical disorders

Specialized Tests for Clinical Disorders

  • Single-construct tests such as the Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Anxiety Inventory.

  • State vs. trait testing such as Spielberger’sState-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)


Beware of bogus personality tests

Beware of Bogus Personality Tests


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

  • The Barnum Effect: accepting general character descriptions as being specifically applicable to ourselves. Provides an illusion of uniqueness.

  • (video example)


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

  • Graphology


Chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings

end


  • Login