chapter 14 using tests in clinical and counseling settings
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Chapter 14 Using Tests in Clinical and Counseling Settings. Assessment vs. Testing. Tests are focused and specific. Clinical “assessment” includes a broad info-gathering and interpretation. The Role of Managed Care. Demand for greater accountability.

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assessment vs testing
Assessment vs. Testing
  • Tests are focused and specific.
  • Clinical “assessment” includes a broad info-gathering and interpretation.
the role of managed care
The Role of Managed Care
  • Demand for greater accountability.
  • Demand for short-term therapy. Clients are expected to learn coping skills quickly.
  • Reluctance to pay for extensive and expensive testing.
  • Greater use of the psychiatric model of giving drugs.
  • Emphasis on cost saving and efficiency.
3 models of how testing is used by clinicians and counselors
3 Models of How Testing Is Used by Clinicians and Counselors
  • Info-gathering model
  • Therapeutic model
  • Differential treatment model
information gathering model
Information-gathering Model
  • Provides standardized comprisons with others.
  • Makes predictions about real world setting.
  • Provides baseline measure for evaluating success of treatment.
the therapeutic model
The Therapeutic Model
  • Assessment leads to dialog that facilitates behavioral change; i.e., self-discovery and insights.
the differential treatment model
The Differential Treatment Model

Testing provides data for evaluating treatments.

tests used for diagnosis and intervention
Tests Used for Diagnosis and Intervention
  • Diagnosis: indentifying the client’s problem or disorder. Also called screening.
  • Can be informal.
  • May involve a DSM-IV category and label.
  • Diagnosis leads to the design of an intervention or treatment plan. This process varies with the professional making the judgment (i.e., unreliably).
the clinical interview
The Clinical Interview
  • Structured: predetermined set of questions. May be scored. Leads to diagnosis.
  • Nondirective clinical interview: few predetermined questions, most are ad hoc…flexible, but can lead to hypothesis confirmation bias (i.e., seeking info to confirm a predetermined hunch).
Semistructured: some predetermined questions, some open-ended, plus follow-up questions.
dangers of the nondirective interview
Dangers of the Nondirective Interview
  • Hypothesis confirmation bias: seeking info to confirm a predetermined hunch; e.g., false memory syndrome.
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy: Interviewer’s expectations influence the client’s actual responses.
structured personality tests
Structured Personality Tests
  • Objective, self-report measures of psychopathological behavior; e.g., MMPI-2 (Sample report)
Objective, self-report measures of normal personality
  • 16 Personality Factor Inventory (16PF)
  • California Personality Inventory (CPI)
  • Strong Interest Inventory
projective techniques
Projective Techniques


  • Rorschach Inkblot Technique (Criticism)
projective techniques1
Projective Techniques

Storytelling (cont’d)

2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Projective Drawing

1. House-Tree-Person (HTP)

2. Draw-A-Person Technique

neuropsychological tests
Neuropsychological Tests
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Event-related potential (ERP)
  • Imaging techniques; e.g., PET, MRI
developmental applications psychopathological applications
Developmental Applications:Psychopathological Applications
  • Anxiety: specific brain structures (e.g., temporal lobe) and neurotransmitters.
  • Depression can affect test performance.
  • Schizophrenia has been linked to brain dysfunction.
specialized tests for clinical disorders
Specialized Tests for Clinical Disorders
  • Single-construct tests such as the Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Anxiety Inventory.
  • State vs. trait testing such as Spielberger’sState-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
The Barnum Effect: accepting general character descriptions as being specifically applicable to ourselves. Provides an illusion of uniqueness.
  • (video example)