Physics 320 astronomy and astrophysics lecture xiii
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Physics 320: Astronomy and Astrophysics – Lecture XIII. Carsten Denker Physics Department Center for Solar–Terrestrial Research. The Jovian Worlds. The Giant Planets The Jovian Moons Io Europa Ganymede Callisto Ring System.

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Physics 320 astronomy and astrophysics lecture xiii

Physics 320: Astronomy and Astrophysics – Lecture XIII

Carsten Denker

Physics Department

Center for Solar–Terrestrial Research


The jovian worlds
The Jovian Worlds

  • The Giant Planets

  • The Jovian Moons

    • Io

    • Europa

    • Ganymede

    • Callisto

  • Ring System

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


The giant planets

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune = 99.5% of the entire mass of the planetary system

Galileo Galilei 1610  Galilean moons and Saturn’s ring (telescope)

Pioneer 10/11 and Voyager ½

Galileo and Cassini-Huygens

Contribution of degenerate electron pressure

Brown dwarfs must have masses less than about 80 MJupiter

The Giant Planets

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Jupiter
Jupiter mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Shoemaker levy 9
Shoemaker-Levy 9 mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Atmosphere
Atmosphere mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Oblateness

Equatorial radius: mass of the planetary systemRe = 71,370 km

Polar radius: Rp = 66,750 km

Oblateness: (Re Rp) / Re = 0.0648

First order correction term in gravitational potential:   U / m

Oblateness

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Gravitational moments

J mass of the planetary system2: oblateness and moment of inertia

J4: mass distribution in outer regions, equatorial bulge, and planets thermal structure

Gravitational Moments

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


The jovian moons

Galilean moon: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto mass of the planetary system

Rock  increase of water-ice crust (volatiles)

Formation of moons linked to formation of Jupiter itself

Hot Jupiter evaporation of volatiles on the closer moons

Tidal interactions  volcanism

Volcanism similar to geysers (sulfur and sulfur dioxide SO2)

Resonance in orbits of Io, Europa, and Ganymede: 1:2:4 ratio of orbital periods

Galilean moons are located inside Jupiter’s magnetosphere (210 times rJupiter

vIo = 57 km/s  potential differences of up to 600 kV and currents of up to 106 A

The Jovian Moons

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Io mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Magnetosphere
Magnetosphere mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Volcanism on io
Volcanism on Io mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Europa
Europa mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Ganymede
Ganymede mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Callisto
Callisto mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Internal structure
Internal Structure mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Saturn
Saturn mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Ring systems

Cassini division mass of the planetary system

Encke gap

Thousands of ringlets

F ring is very narrow and appears to be braided

Ring extend about 5 rSaturn and are very thin ( 10 m, ripples  1 km)

Optical depth of ring system between 0.1 and 2

Partially inelastic collisions keep rings thin

Ring particles are small, a few centimeters to several meters

Rings are highly reflective (albedos in the range from 0.2 to 0.6)

Ring systems of Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune

Keplerian shear

Shepherd moons

Orbital resonance

Spiral density waves

Poynting-Robertson effect

Ring Systems

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


NJIT mass of the planetary systemCenter for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Atmosphere1
Atmosphere mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Uranus
Uranus mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Seasons on uranus
Seasons on Uranus mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Neptune
Neptune mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Comparison of internal structure
Comparison of Internal Structure mass of the planetary system

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


Homework class project
Homework Class Project mass of the planetary system

  • Continue improving the PPT presentation.

  • Use the abstract from the previous assignment as a starting point for a PowerPoint presentation.

  • The PPT presentation should have between 5 and 10 slides.

  • Bring a print-out of the draft version to the next class as a discussion template for group work

  • Homework is due Wednesday December 10th, 2003. Last chance!

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research


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