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HelioVolt Corporation: The Future of Photovoltaic Power. B.J. Stanbery HelioVolt Corporation 8201 E. Riverside Dr., Suite 600 Austin, TX 78744. Cost. Durability. Efficiency. HelioVolt Mission.

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Heliovolt corporation the future of photovoltaic power

HelioVolt Corporation:The Future of Photovoltaic Power

B.J. StanberyHelioVolt Corporation

8201 E. Riverside Dr., Suite 600Austin, TX 78744

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Heliovolt mission

Cost

Durability

Efficiency

HelioVolt Mission

  • To develop and commercialize a new generation of efficient, safe, reliable, and attractive thin-film photovoltaic solar power products that are the first to enable energy production at cost parity with conventional sources of electricity.

  • Lowest cost thin film circuits, less than one fourth that of silicon PV and one tenth that of current Building Integrated PV (“BIPV”) products

  • Warranted Lifetime of at least 20 years for first products

  • Comparable conversion efficiencies to multicrystalline silicon

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Solar power learning curve
Solar Power Learning Curve

  • Plateau in direct manufacturing costs

  • Data source Luuk Beurskens, ECN Policy Studies, PHOTEX’03

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Lifetime required for 10 kw h energy at various module costs
Lifetime Required for 10¢/kW·h Energy at Various Module Costs

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Solar power yesterday
Solar Power Yesterday

  • Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) modules for retrofit

  • PV module sales $5.5B (2005)

    • PV market 30+% CAGR since ‘97, +40% 2005

  • Sales <½% total annual global CapEx for electrical power generation

  • Current market limited by supply, even at price of

    • $4/Wp modules + $3 installation = $7/Wp

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Silicon module limitations

Over $1 in silicon materials cost dominates COGS

Data source Prog.Photovolt.Res.Appl. 5, 309-315(1997)

Silicon Module Limitations

$1.78/Wp projected lowest costfor crystalline Si PV modules

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Semiconductor cost reduction
Semiconductor Cost Reduction

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Solar power tomorrow
Solar Power Tomorrow

  • Power Buildings will become multi-$T market

    • PV as an integrated electronic component

  • Efficient, durable thin-film solar cells incorporated into traditional building materials

  • Current products unsuitable for this market

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Power buildings market

Electrical Demand met by PV

Power Buildings Market

  • Huge latent demand

  • USA potential:$150B/yr

    • 60% share

  • Multiple segments

    • Architectural glass

    • Windows & skylights

    • Roofing

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Reactive transfer printing

Precursor 1

Reactive Transfer Printing

Printing Plate

Precursor 2

Stage 1:

Precursors’ Deposition

Substrate

Printing Plate

Mechanical (& Electrostatic)

Pressure

Heat

Stage 2:

Rapid Thermal Processing and

Separation

Product

Layer

Substrate

Micro-Reactor

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Cigs pv device semiconductor copper indium gallium diselenide
CIGS PV Device Semiconductor: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide

  • Highest efficiency single-junction thin-film PV semiconductor material

    • 19.5% conversion efficiency (NREL)

    • Unique material properties derive from spontaneous nanostructuring

  • Inherently stable under normal operating conditions

  • Second generation photovoltaic semiconductor material

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


Rtp implementation fasst cigs semiconductor synthesis
RTP Implementation: FASST ™ CIGS Semiconductor Synthesis

  • Field-Assisted Simultaneous Synthesis and Transfer

    • Second generation CIGS manufacturing technology

  • Advantages

    • Rapid processing

    • Vastly reduced thermal budget

    • Confinement of volatile selenium

    • Electrostatic field effects on ionic constituent transport during synthesis

  • Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Fasst process sequence

    Rapid Thermal Processor

    Electrostatic

    Chuck

    Printing Plate

    Printing Plate

    Release Layer

    Printing Plate

    Precursor 2

    Release Layer

    Precursor 2

    Release Layer

    Precursor 1

    Metal Contact Layer

    Precursor 1

    Substrate

    Metal Contact Layer

    Substrate

    emitter

    CIGS

    CIGS

    Metal Contact Layer

    Metal Contact Layer

    Substrate

    Substrate

    Completed Device

    FASST ™ Process Sequence

    Flash Heating

    Recoat Printing Plate

    Device

    Processing

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    First factory production flow
    First Factory Production Flow

    Metal Pattern (P1)

    Glass Clean

    1. Front End

    Metal Deposition

    PrecursorDeposition

    3. Buffer

    BufferDeposition

    FASST ™ Synthesis

    2. CIGS Synthesis

    Absorber Pattern (P2)

    TCODeposition

    TCO Pattern (P3)

    4. Device Processing

    Product Packaging

    Test & Ship

    5. Back End

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Cigs thin film products
    CIGS Thin-Film Products

    • CIGS is an alloy of Copper, Indium, Gallium and Selenium

    • Monolithic integration forms circuits without high wafer assembly costs

    • CIGS is one of three known intrinsically stable PV materials (with Silicon and Gallium Arsenide)

      • Instrinsic stability required for long lived robust products

    • More efficient absorber of light than any other known semiconductor

    • Requires 1/100th of the material compared to silicon for comparable light absorption

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Product value proposition
    Product Value Proposition

    Revolutionary FASSTTM Manufacturing Process

    CIGS Thin-Film Technology

    HelioVolt

    Thin-Film PVICs

    • Highest performance; most versatile & durable

      • PVIC platform avoids costly inter-cell wiring & bypass components

      • Proven semiconductor CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide)

    • Lowest Cost Thin Film Devices

      • Less than 1/4th the cost of silicon PV module

      • Integrated systems for Power Buildings less than1/10th cost of current technologies

      • Lower cost electricity than effective current retail electricity prices in five years

    • Wide Range of Applications for both rigid and flexible PVIC platform products

      • Traditional PV modules

      • Building Integrated PV (BIPV) Systems

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Reactive transfer printing rtp
    Reactive Transfer Printing (RTP)

    • Combines features of

      • Rapid Thermal Annealing, and (optionally)

      • Anodic Wafer Bonding

        • electrostatic fields effects

    • Advantages

      • Rapid processing

        • Eliminates pre-reaction

        • Independent pre-heating of precursors

      • Confinement of volatile species

      • Independent precursor deposition optimization

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Rapid thermal annealing rta
    Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA)

    • RTA is a non-equilibrium thermal processing method widely used in semiconductor device manufacturing

      • Often used to provide activation energy whilst minimizing concomitant diffusion

      • Employed for formation and annealing of gate dielectric layers in FET’s

      • Used for reactive formation of electrical contacts by thermal silicidation of silicon/metal interfaces

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Cigs film process time

    Metal Selenization

    Coevaporation

    HelioVoltFASST™

    CIGS Film Process Time

    • Rapid processing delivers high capital efficiency

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Thermal budget comparison
    Thermal Budget Comparison

    • One to three orders of magnitude reduction in thermal budget Figure of Merit (FOM)

    • Highest average processing temperature

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Anodic wafer bonding awb
    Anodic Wafer Bonding (AWB)

    • AWB is widely used for MEMS manufacture

    • Employs electrostatic fields to bond alkali glass to semiconductors or metals with lower temperature and pressure than fusion bonding

    • High voltage across the wafer/glass stack repels mobile ions in the glass, inducing a space-charge and creating strong electrostatic compression, pulling them into intimate contact on an atomic scale.

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Electrostatic compression
    Electrostatic Compression

    • HelioVolt’s FASST™ CIGS process utilizes both mechanical and electrostatic compression

      • Length scale is much smaller than conventional AWB

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Cigs precursor deposition methods
    CIGS Precursor Deposition Methods

    • Low-temperature vacuum deposition

      • Provides increased throughput compared to conventional high-temperature CIGS synthesis by co-deposition or selenization

    • Non-vacuum liquid precursor deposition

      • HelioVolt/NREL Cooperative Research & Development Agreement (CRADA)

        • Goal: development of non-vacuum nanomaterial-based precursor deposition processes

      • Synthesis of CIGS demonstrated using FASST™ processing

        • Details to be presented by Jennifer Nekuda at the Fall 2007 MRS meeting in Boston later this month

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Recrystallization of nanoscale granular precursor films
    Recrystallization of Nanoscale Granular Precursor Films

    • FASST™ CIGS cross-section Precursor Film

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Composition fluctuations and carrier transport in cigs pv absorbers
    Composition Fluctuations and Carrier Transport in CIGS PV Absorbers

    • Peculiar semiconductor behavior: Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) PV devices insensitive to extended defects and ±5% atomic composition variations of its metallic constituents

      • Selenium deficiency results in poor devices

    • Observations

      • CIGS PV devices are always copper deficient compared to a-CuInSe2

      • Compositions lie in the equilibrium a+b 2-phase domain

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Composition fluctuations and carrier transport in cigs pv absorbers1
    Composition Fluctuations and Carrier Transport in CIGS PV Absorbers

    • Experimental results* HAADF-TEM & nano-EDS

      • 5-10 nm characteristic domain size (2-D)

      • Pearson product-moment statistical correlation between the two variables Cu/(In+Ga) and Ga/(In+Ga) is 0.72 (null P=0.3% )

    *Applied Physics Letters, 87, 2005, 121904

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Reactive transfer printing for film synthesis
    Reactive Transfer Printing for Film Synthesis Absorbers

    • RTP is an advanced printing method for making films and coatings. It offers

      • Low thermal budget

      • Confinement of volatile reaction components

      • Electrostatic modification of ionic transport

    • FASST™ implementation of RTP is a processing method with demonstrated capabilities to

      • Utilize nano-particle based precursors for high-quality CIGS synthesis

      • Modify nanodomain formation during CIGS synthesis

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


    Heliovolt corporation the future of photovoltaic power1

    HelioVolt Corporation: AbsorbersThe Future of Photovoltaic Power

    B.J. StanberyHelioVolt Corporation

    8201 E. Riverside Dr., Suite 600Austin, TX 78744

    Energy Technology & Policy

    B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation


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