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HelioVolt Corporation: The Future of Photovoltaic Power. B.J. Stanbery HelioVolt Corporation 8201 E. Riverside Dr., Suite 600 Austin, TX 78744. Cost. Durability. Efficiency. HelioVolt Mission.

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heliovolt corporation the future of photovoltaic power

HelioVolt Corporation:The Future of Photovoltaic Power

B.J. StanberyHelioVolt Corporation

8201 E. Riverside Dr., Suite 600Austin, TX 78744

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

heliovolt mission

Cost

Durability

Efficiency

HelioVolt Mission
  • To develop and commercialize a new generation of efficient, safe, reliable, and attractive thin-film photovoltaic solar power products that are the first to enable energy production at cost parity with conventional sources of electricity.
  • Lowest cost thin film circuits, less than one fourth that of silicon PV and one tenth that of current Building Integrated PV (“BIPV”) products
  • Warranted Lifetime of at least 20 years for first products
  • Comparable conversion efficiencies to multicrystalline silicon

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

solar power learning curve
Solar Power Learning Curve
  • Plateau in direct manufacturing costs
  • Data source Luuk Beurskens, ECN Policy Studies, PHOTEX’03

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

lifetime required for 10 kw h energy at various module costs
Lifetime Required for 10¢/kW·h Energy at Various Module Costs

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

solar power yesterday
Solar Power Yesterday
  • Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) modules for retrofit
  • PV module sales $5.5B (2005)
    • PV market 30+% CAGR since ‘97, +40% 2005
  • Sales <½% total annual global CapEx for electrical power generation
  • Current market limited by supply, even at price of
    • $4/Wp modules + $3 installation = $7/Wp

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

silicon module limitations
Over $1 in silicon materials cost dominates COGS

Data source Prog.Photovolt.Res.Appl. 5, 309-315(1997)

Silicon Module Limitations

$1.78/Wp projected lowest costfor crystalline Si PV modules

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

semiconductor cost reduction
Semiconductor Cost Reduction

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

solar power tomorrow
Solar Power Tomorrow
  • Power Buildings will become multi-$T market
    • PV as an integrated electronic component
  • Efficient, durable thin-film solar cells incorporated into traditional building materials
  • Current products unsuitable for this market

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

power buildings market

Electrical Demand met by PV

Power Buildings Market
  • Huge latent demand
  • USA potential:$150B/yr
    • 60% share
  • Multiple segments
    • Architectural glass
    • Windows & skylights
    • Roofing

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

reactive transfer printing

Precursor 1

Reactive Transfer Printing

Printing Plate

Precursor 2

Stage 1:

Precursors’ Deposition

Substrate

Printing Plate

Mechanical (& Electrostatic)

Pressure

Heat

Stage 2:

Rapid Thermal Processing and

Separation

Product

Layer

Substrate

Micro-Reactor

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

cigs pv device semiconductor copper indium gallium diselenide
CIGS PV Device Semiconductor: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide
  • Highest efficiency single-junction thin-film PV semiconductor material
    • 19.5% conversion efficiency (NREL)
    • Unique material properties derive from spontaneous nanostructuring
  • Inherently stable under normal operating conditions
  • Second generation photovoltaic semiconductor material

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

rtp implementation fasst cigs semiconductor synthesis
RTP Implementation: FASST ™ CIGS Semiconductor Synthesis
  • Field-Assisted Simultaneous Synthesis and Transfer
      • Second generation CIGS manufacturing technology
  • Advantages
    • Rapid processing
    • Vastly reduced thermal budget
    • Confinement of volatile selenium
    • Electrostatic field effects on ionic constituent transport during synthesis

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

fasst process sequence

Rapid Thermal Processor

Electrostatic

Chuck

Printing Plate

Printing Plate

Release Layer

Printing Plate

Precursor 2

Release Layer

Precursor 2

Release Layer

Precursor 1

Metal Contact Layer

Precursor 1

Substrate

Metal Contact Layer

Substrate

emitter

CIGS

CIGS

Metal Contact Layer

Metal Contact Layer

Substrate

Substrate

Completed Device

FASST ™ Process Sequence

Flash Heating

Recoat Printing Plate

Device

Processing

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

first factory production flow
First Factory Production Flow

Metal Pattern (P1)

Glass Clean

1. Front End

Metal Deposition

PrecursorDeposition

3. Buffer

BufferDeposition

FASST ™ Synthesis

2. CIGS Synthesis

Absorber Pattern (P2)

TCODeposition

TCO Pattern (P3)

4. Device Processing

Product Packaging

Test & Ship

5. Back End

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

cigs thin film products
CIGS Thin-Film Products
  • CIGS is an alloy of Copper, Indium, Gallium and Selenium
  • Monolithic integration forms circuits without high wafer assembly costs
  • CIGS is one of three known intrinsically stable PV materials (with Silicon and Gallium Arsenide)
    • Instrinsic stability required for long lived robust products
  • More efficient absorber of light than any other known semiconductor
  • Requires 1/100th of the material compared to silicon for comparable light absorption

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

product value proposition
Product Value Proposition

Revolutionary FASSTTM Manufacturing Process

CIGS Thin-Film Technology

HelioVolt

Thin-Film PVICs

  • Highest performance; most versatile & durable
    • PVIC platform avoids costly inter-cell wiring & bypass components
    • Proven semiconductor CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide)
  • Lowest Cost Thin Film Devices
    • Less than 1/4th the cost of silicon PV module
    • Integrated systems for Power Buildings less than1/10th cost of current technologies
    • Lower cost electricity than effective current retail electricity prices in five years
  • Wide Range of Applications for both rigid and flexible PVIC platform products
    • Traditional PV modules
    • Building Integrated PV (BIPV) Systems

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

reactive transfer printing rtp
Reactive Transfer Printing (RTP)
  • Combines features of
    • Rapid Thermal Annealing, and (optionally)
    • Anodic Wafer Bonding
      • electrostatic fields effects
  • Advantages
    • Rapid processing
      • Eliminates pre-reaction
      • Independent pre-heating of precursors
    • Confinement of volatile species
    • Independent precursor deposition optimization

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

rapid thermal annealing rta
Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA)
  • RTA is a non-equilibrium thermal processing method widely used in semiconductor device manufacturing
    • Often used to provide activation energy whilst minimizing concomitant diffusion
    • Employed for formation and annealing of gate dielectric layers in FET’s
    • Used for reactive formation of electrical contacts by thermal silicidation of silicon/metal interfaces

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

cigs film process time

Metal Selenization

Coevaporation

HelioVoltFASST™

CIGS Film Process Time
  • Rapid processing delivers high capital efficiency

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

thermal budget comparison
Thermal Budget Comparison
  • One to three orders of magnitude reduction in thermal budget Figure of Merit (FOM)
  • Highest average processing temperature

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

anodic wafer bonding awb
Anodic Wafer Bonding (AWB)
  • AWB is widely used for MEMS manufacture
  • Employs electrostatic fields to bond alkali glass to semiconductors or metals with lower temperature and pressure than fusion bonding
  • High voltage across the wafer/glass stack repels mobile ions in the glass, inducing a space-charge and creating strong electrostatic compression, pulling them into intimate contact on an atomic scale.

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

electrostatic compression
Electrostatic Compression
  • HelioVolt’s FASST™ CIGS process utilizes both mechanical and electrostatic compression
    • Length scale is much smaller than conventional AWB

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

cigs precursor deposition methods
CIGS Precursor Deposition Methods
  • Low-temperature vacuum deposition
    • Provides increased throughput compared to conventional high-temperature CIGS synthesis by co-deposition or selenization
  • Non-vacuum liquid precursor deposition
    • HelioVolt/NREL Cooperative Research & Development Agreement (CRADA)
      • Goal: development of non-vacuum nanomaterial-based precursor deposition processes
    • Synthesis of CIGS demonstrated using FASST™ processing
      • Details to be presented by Jennifer Nekuda at the Fall 2007 MRS meeting in Boston later this month

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

recrystallization of nanoscale granular precursor films
Recrystallization of Nanoscale Granular Precursor Films
  • FASST™ CIGS cross-section Precursor Film

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

composition fluctuations and carrier transport in cigs pv absorbers
Composition Fluctuations and Carrier Transport in CIGS PV Absorbers
  • Peculiar semiconductor behavior: Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) PV devices insensitive to extended defects and ±5% atomic composition variations of its metallic constituents
    • Selenium deficiency results in poor devices
  • Observations
    • CIGS PV devices are always copper deficient compared to a-CuInSe2
    • Compositions lie in the equilibrium a+b 2-phase domain

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

composition fluctuations and carrier transport in cigs pv absorbers1
Composition Fluctuations and Carrier Transport in CIGS PV Absorbers
  • Experimental results* HAADF-TEM & nano-EDS
    • 5-10 nm characteristic domain size (2-D)
    • Pearson product-moment statistical correlation between the two variables Cu/(In+Ga) and Ga/(In+Ga) is 0.72 (null P=0.3% )

*Applied Physics Letters, 87, 2005, 121904

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

reactive transfer printing for film synthesis
Reactive Transfer Printing for Film Synthesis
  • RTP is an advanced printing method for making films and coatings. It offers
    • Low thermal budget
    • Confinement of volatile reaction components
    • Electrostatic modification of ionic transport
  • FASST™ implementation of RTP is a processing method with demonstrated capabilities to
    • Utilize nano-particle based precursors for high-quality CIGS synthesis
    • Modify nanodomain formation during CIGS synthesis

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

heliovolt corporation the future of photovoltaic power1

HelioVolt Corporation:The Future of Photovoltaic Power

B.J. StanberyHelioVolt Corporation

8201 E. Riverside Dr., Suite 600Austin, TX 78744

Energy Technology & Policy

B.J. Stanbery, HelioVolt Corporation

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