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Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars. Korean War. American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM Containment  “American policy of RESISTING the EXPANSION of communism around the world” War lasted 1950-1953. Background.

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Korean war
Korean War

  • American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM

    • Containment  “American policy of RESISTING the EXPANSION of communism around the world”

  • War lasted 1950-1953

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Background
Background

  • Japan had ANNEXED the Korean peninsula before WWI; Japanese defeated in WWII

  • 1945  Allies agreed on a TEMPORARY solution = temporary division of Korea at the 38th PARALLEL

    • SOVIET-occupied NORTHERN zone

    • AMERICAN-occupied SOUTHERN zone

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013



Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


War breaks out in korea
War breaks out in Korea COMMUNIST regime was established in NORTH Korea.

  • Koreans on BOTH sides of the dividing line wanted to UNIFY their nation

  • JUNE 1950: the Korean War broke out when NORTH KOREAN troops INVADED South Korea over the 38th parallel border  they were determined to reunite Korea BY FORCE

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


U s response
U.S. response COMMUNIST regime was established in NORTH Korea.

1)Pres. TRUMAN brought the issue of North Korean aggression to the UNITED NATIONS

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


2)Truman ordered American AIR and NAVAL support + GROUND troops to aid the South Koreans.

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4) Truman did NOT go to CONGRESS for an official declaration of war (as required by the CONSTITUTION)

- Article 1, Section 8: Congress maintains the power to DECLARE WAR

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Un police action
UN Police Action of war (as required by the CONSTITUTION)

  • The U.S. chose Gen. Douglas MACARTHUR to be the COMMANDER of the UN forces

  • Americans made up roughly 80% of POLICE ACTION in Korea

    • Police action: a LOCALIZED military action without declaration of war

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Waging the war
Waging the War of war (as required by the CONSTITUTION)

  • American military forces led a United Nations COUNTERATTACK that drove deep into NORTH KOREA itself.

  • Communist CHINESE forces came into the war on the side of North Korea to PUSH BACK UN forces

  • STALEMATE developed between the two sides

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Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Effects of korean war
Effects of Korean War same place as before the war  near the 38

1) Enormous FRUSTRATION in United States  54,000 dead, 103,000 wounded for LIMITED results

2) RESISTANCE of

Communist forces,

containment W/OUT

nuclear war.

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3) INTEGRATION of UNITS in armed forces same place as before the war  near the 38

4) Huge INCREASE in MILITARY SPENDING

5) Development of powerful MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL complex

6) Permanent MOBILIZATION of troops

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Vietnam war
Vietnam War same place as before the war  near the 38

  • American involvement in the VIETNAM WAR also reflected the Cold War policy of CONTAINMENT of communism

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Background1
Background same place as before the war  near the 38

  • “DOMINO theory”: refers to the fear that if one SOUTHEAST ASIAN nation fell to the Communists, the others would also fall

  • Because of its GEOGRAPHIC location, a Communist TAKEOVER of Vietnam posed a THREAT to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013 same place as before the war  near the 38


Increasing u s involvement
Increasing U.S. Involvement same place as before the war  near the 38

  • in SOUTH Vietnam BY FORCE Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the COMMUNIST government of NORTH Vietnam attempted to install a communist government

  • The UNITED STATES helped South Vietnam RESIST

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Gulf of tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY

  • August 1964: Johnson announced that North Vietnamese TORPEDOES had attacked U.S. destroyers in the GULF of TONKIN (INTERNATIONAL waters)

  • Johnson asked CONGRESS for authority to take ACTION against North Vietnam  Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin RESOLUTION

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Fighting the war
Fighting the War EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY

  • Nearly 3 MILLION Americans served in the Vietnam War

  • Battlefield conditions were DIFFICULT:

    • Viet Cong (Communist guerillas in South Korea) were familiar with LANDSCAPE

    • South Vietnamese seemed INDIFFERENT

    • Couldn’t TRUST anyone

    • Intense HEAT, jungle climate

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Ground war
Ground War EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY

  • Viet Cong lacked sophisticated equipment, so they used GUERILLA warfare tactics

    • Worked in small groups to launch SNEAK attacks

    • Hid in elaborate underground TUNNELS

    • Set BOOBY traps like camouflaged PITS and LAND MINES

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013 EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY


Air war
Air War EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY

  • SATURATION bombing: huge B-52 American bombers dropped thousands of tons of EXPLOSIVES over large areas

  • Chemical weapons:

    • NAPALM: a destructive CHEMICAL, splattered and burned uncontrollably when dropped from airplanes, including on human FLESH

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AGENT ORANGE EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY HERBICIDE that killed leaves and undergrowth to expose Viet Cong hiding places; also killed CROPS and caused HEALTH problems

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Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


  • Tet (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts Offensive

    • Major offensive launched by VIET CONG and NORTH Vietnamese on January 30, 1968

    • Communists were extremely BRUTAL, killing anyone they labeled an enemy

    • Viet Cong won PSYCHOLOGICAL victory

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Massacre at my lai
Massacre at My Lai (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

  • March 1968: U.S. infantry company entered MY LAI (small village that was supposedly sheltering Viet Cong)

  • U.S. soldiers found only WOMEN, CHILDREN, and OLD MEN in the village  the U.S. soldiers massacred these civilians

  • More than 400 INNOCENT Vietnamese died until a U.S. HELICOPTER crew stepped in to halt the slaughter

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Political divisions
Political Divisions (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

  • The country became BITTERLY DIVIDED over the Vietnam War.

  • Some Americans SUPPORTED the American military and the war effort, hoped for military victory

  • Other Americans believed the war was MORALLY WRONG, urged immediate withdrawal

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Student activism
Student Activism (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

  • Active opposition to the war occurred especially on COLLEGE campuses

  • Students were among the first to speak out against the

    Vietnam War:

    • “TEACH-INS”

    • DRAFT RESISTANCE

    • PROTESTS

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Nixon and vietnamization
Nixon and “ (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their effortsVietnamization”

  • After Johnson declined to seek re-election, President NIXON was elected on his pledge to bring the war to an HONORABLE END.

  • He instituted the policy of “VIETNAMIZATION”  WITHDRAWING American troops & replacing them with South Vietnamese soldiers, while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese

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End of the war
End of the War (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

  • January 1973: U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Viet Cong signed FORMAL PEACE AGREEMENTS

  • Nixon FORCED out of office by the WATERGATE scandal (1972-1974)

    • Break-in at Democratic National Convention headquarters

    • Nixon part of illegal cover-up

    • Nixon impeached, then resigned

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Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013 (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts


  • Ultimately “ (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their effortsVietnamization” FAILED when South Vietnamese troops were UNABLE to resist INVASION by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army

  • April 30, 1975  North Vietnam completed its CONQUEST of South Vietnam

  • North and South Vietnam MERGED under communist control

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Impact of vietnam war
Impact of Vietnam War (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

  • More than 58,000 Americans dead

  • 300,000 wounded

  • More than 2,500 MIA (MISSING IN ACTION) and POWs (PRISONERS OF WAR)

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  • LONGEST and LEAST successful war in American history (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

  • United States spent at least $150 billion on the Vietnam War

  • MORE bombs dropped on Vietnam than on all the Axis powers in WWII

  • DIVIDED the nation more than any other war besides the Civil War

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Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C. (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


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