Cold war korean and vietnam wars
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Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars. Korean War. American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM Containment  “American policy of RESISTING the EXPANSION of communism around the world” War lasted 1950-1953. Background.

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Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars


Korean war

Korean War

  • American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM

    • Containment  “American policy of RESISTING the EXPANSION of communism around the world”

  • War lasted 1950-1953

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Background

Background

  • Japan had ANNEXED the Korean peninsula before WWI; Japanese defeated in WWII

  • 1945  Allies agreed on a TEMPORARY solution = temporary division of Korea at the 38th PARALLEL

    • SOVIET-occupied NORTHERN zone

    • AMERICAN-occupied SOUTHERN zone

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • Soon a PRO-AMERICAN government formed in SOUTH Korea and a COMMUNIST regime was established in NORTH Korea.

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War breaks out in korea

War breaks out in Korea

  • Koreans on BOTH sides of the dividing line wanted to UNIFY their nation

  • JUNE 1950: the Korean War broke out when NORTH KOREAN troops INVADED South Korea over the 38th parallel border  they were determined to reunite Korea BY FORCE

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U s response

U.S. response

1)Pres. TRUMAN brought the issue of North Korean aggression to the UNITED NATIONS

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

2)Truman ordered American AIR and NAVAL support + GROUND troops to aid the South Koreans.

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

4) Truman did NOT go to CONGRESS for an official declaration of war (as required by the CONSTITUTION)

- Article 1, Section 8: Congress maintains the power to DECLARE WAR

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Un police action

UN Police Action

  • The U.S. chose Gen. Douglas MACARTHUR to be the COMMANDER of the UN forces

  • Americans made up roughly 80% of POLICE ACTION in Korea

    • Police action: a LOCALIZED military action without declaration of war

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Waging the war

Waging the War

  • American military forces led a United Nations COUNTERATTACK that drove deep into NORTH KOREA itself.

  • Communist CHINESE forces came into the war on the side of North Korea to PUSH BACK UN forces

  • STALEMATE developed between the two sides

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • TRUCE signed in 1953 left Korea DIVIDED at almost the exact same place as before the war  near the 38th PARALLEL

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Effects of korean war

Effects of Korean War

1) Enormous FRUSTRATION in United States  54,000 dead, 103,000 wounded for LIMITED results

2) RESISTANCE of

Communist forces,

containment W/OUT

nuclear war.

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

3) INTEGRATION of UNITS in armed forces

4) Huge INCREASE in MILITARY SPENDING

5) Development of powerful MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL complex

6) Permanent MOBILIZATION of troops

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Vietnam war

Vietnam War

  • American involvement in the VIETNAM WAR also reflected the Cold War policy of CONTAINMENT of communism

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Background1

Background

  • “DOMINO theory”: refers to the fear that if one SOUTHEAST ASIAN nation fell to the Communists, the others would also fall

  • Because of its GEOGRAPHIC location, a Communist TAKEOVER of Vietnam posed a THREAT to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

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Increasing u s involvement

Increasing U.S. Involvement

  • in SOUTH Vietnam BY FORCE Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the COMMUNIST government of NORTH Vietnam attempted to install a communist government

  • The UNITED STATES helped South Vietnam RESIST

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • The American military BUILDUP in Vietnam began under Pres. EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY

  • After Kennedy’s ASSASSINATION in 1963, the military buildup was INTENSIFIED under Pres. Lyndon JOHNSON

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Gulf of tonkin

Gulf of Tonkin

  • August 1964: Johnson announced that North Vietnamese TORPEDOES had attacked U.S. destroyers in the GULF of TONKIN (INTERNATIONAL waters)

  • Johnson asked CONGRESS for authority to take ACTION against North Vietnam  Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin RESOLUTION

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Fighting the war

Fighting the War

  • Nearly 3 MILLION Americans served in the Vietnam War

  • Battlefield conditions were DIFFICULT:

    • Viet Cong (Communist guerillas in South Korea) were familiar with LANDSCAPE

    • South Vietnamese seemed INDIFFERENT

    • Couldn’t TRUST anyone

    • Intense HEAT, jungle climate

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Ground war

Ground War

  • Viet Cong lacked sophisticated equipment, so they used GUERILLA warfare tactics

    • Worked in small groups to launch SNEAK attacks

    • Hid in elaborate underground TUNNELS

    • Set BOOBY traps like camouflaged PITS and LAND MINES

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

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Air war

Air War

  • SATURATION bombing: huge B-52 American bombers dropped thousands of tons of EXPLOSIVES over large areas

  • Chemical weapons:

    • NAPALM: a destructive CHEMICAL, splattered and burned uncontrollably when dropped from airplanes, including on human FLESH

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

AGENT ORANGE  HERBICIDE that killed leaves and undergrowth to expose Viet Cong hiding places; also killed CROPS and caused HEALTH problems

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • Despite the LARGE United States presence in South Vietnam (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • Tet Offensive

    • Major offensive launched by VIET CONG and NORTH Vietnamese on January 30, 1968

    • Communists were extremely BRUTAL, killing anyone they labeled an enemy

    • Viet Cong won PSYCHOLOGICAL victory

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Massacre at my lai

Massacre at My Lai

  • March 1968: U.S. infantry company entered MY LAI (small village that was supposedly sheltering Viet Cong)

  • U.S. soldiers found only WOMEN, CHILDREN, and OLD MEN in the village  the U.S. soldiers massacred these civilians

  • More than 400 INNOCENT Vietnamese died until a U.S. HELICOPTER crew stepped in to halt the slaughter

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Political divisions

Political Divisions

  • The country became BITTERLY DIVIDED over the Vietnam War.

  • Some Americans SUPPORTED the American military and the war effort, hoped for military victory

  • Other Americans believed the war was MORALLY WRONG, urged immediate withdrawal

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Student activism

Student Activism

  • Active opposition to the war occurred especially on COLLEGE campuses

  • Students were among the first to speak out against the

    Vietnam War:

    • “TEACH-INS”

    • DRAFT RESISTANCE

    • PROTESTS

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Nixon and vietnamization

Nixon and “Vietnamization”

  • After Johnson declined to seek re-election, President NIXON was elected on his pledge to bring the war to an HONORABLE END.

  • He instituted the policy of “VIETNAMIZATION”  WITHDRAWING American troops & replacing them with South Vietnamese soldiers, while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese

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End of the war

End of the War

  • January 1973: U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Viet Cong signed FORMAL PEACE AGREEMENTS

  • Nixon FORCED out of office by the WATERGATE scandal (1972-1974)

    • Break-in at Democratic National Convention headquarters

    • Nixon part of illegal cover-up

    • Nixon impeached, then resigned

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

Korea and Vietnam COLLINS 2013


Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • Ultimately “Vietnamization” FAILED when South Vietnamese troops were UNABLE to resist INVASION by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army

  • April 30, 1975  North Vietnam completed its CONQUEST of South Vietnam

  • North and South Vietnam MERGED under communist control

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Impact of vietnam war

Impact of Vietnam War

  • More than 58,000 Americans dead

  • 300,000 wounded

  • More than 2,500 MIA (MISSING IN ACTION) and POWs (PRISONERS OF WAR)

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

  • LONGEST and LEAST successful war in American history

  • United States spent at least $150 billion on the Vietnam War

  • MORE bombs dropped on Vietnam than on all the Axis powers in WWII

  • DIVIDED the nation more than any other war besides the Civil War

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Cold war korean and vietnam wars

Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C.

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