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Music Theory. Cadences - Chapter 5. Definitions. Phrase A substantial musical thought, which ends with a punctuation called a cadence Cadence A harmonic cadence is a musical punctuation that closes a phrase or section of music. Cadence Types. PAC - Perfect authentic cadence

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music theory

Music Theory

Cadences - Chapter 5

definitions
Definitions
  • Phrase
    • A substantial musical thought, which ends with a punctuation called a cadence
  • Cadence
    • A harmonic cadence is a musical punctuation that closes a phrase or section of music
cadence types
Cadence Types
  • PAC - Perfect authentic cadence
  • Strongest Cadence
  • V-I, or V-i
  • Both chords are in root position
  • Tonic is the highest sounding
  • pitch on the last chord
cadence types1
Cadence Types
  • IAC - Imperfect authentic cadence
  • Strong Cadence
  • V-I/i, vii-I/i
  • Both chords are NOT in
  • root position
  • Tonic is NOT the highest
  • sounding pitch on the last chord
cadence types2
Cadence Types
  • Half - Half cadence
  • Like a comma,
  • The final chord is V
  • Phrygian Half Cadence iv to V in minor
cadence types3
Cadence Types
  • DEC - Deceptive
  • Obvsiously - it doesn’t go where you expect
  • V to anything other than I
cadence types4
Cadence Types
  • Plagal - Plagal Cadence
  • “Amen” Cadence
  • IV to I, iv to i
  • Infrequently ii6 to I
cadence types5
Cadence Types
  • Rhythmic Cadence
  • Creating a punctuation with only rhythm
  • Phrases often incorporate them, and they tend to fit with the harmonic cadence type
non harmonic tones nht s
Non Harmonic Tones (NHT’s) -
  • Tones that sound along with a chord but are not chord tones
  • NHT’s create dissonance - usually 2nd’s, 4th’s and 7th’s
  • The dissonance is calculated against the lowest sounding tone of the chord, regardless of the other pitches present (exception if NHT occurs in the lowest sounding voice)
non harmonic tones nht s1
Non Harmonic Tones (NHT’s) -
  • Most NHT’s involve 3 pitches:
  • 1. Preceding Chord Tone
  • 2. NHT
  • 3. Following Chord Tone
  • This relationship is often defined as (1)preparation, (2)dissonance, (3)resolution
non harmonic tones nht s2
Non Harmonic Tones (NHT’s) -

NHT’s are distinguished by determining where the dissonance occurs

  • Unaccented NHT’s - dissonance occurs “off” the beat (weaker)
  • Accented NHT’s - dissonance occurs “on” the beat (stronger)
  • To indentify NHT’s we will place parenthesis around the NHT and write the abreviation for the NHT above or below the chord where it occurs
unaccented nht s
Passing Tone - pt

Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion, either ascending or descending to a NHT follwed by stepwise motion in the same direction to a different chord tone

Unaccented pt:

Occurs in any voice

Stepwise motion

Ascending or descending

Unaccented NHT’s
unaccented nht s1
Neighbor tone - nt

Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion either ascending or descending to a NHT and then back to the same chord tone

Unaccented nt:

Occurs in any voice

Stepwise motion

Ascending or descending

Unaccented NHT’s
unaccented nht s2
Escape Tone - et

Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion ascending to a NHT followed by a descending 3rd to a chord tone

Unaccented et:

Occurs in Soprano voice

Stepwise motion followed by skip down (3rd)

ALWAYS Unaccented

Unaccented NHT’s
unaccented nht s3
Anticipation - ant

Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion, either ascending or descending to a NHT follwed by the same tone (NHT) which occurs as part of the next chord

Unaccented ant:

Occurs in any voice, usually Soprano

Stepwise motion

Ascending or descending

Must be included in the next chord

ALWAYS Unaccented

Unaccented NHT’s
accented nht s
Passing Tone - pt

Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion, either ascending or descending to a NHT follwed by stepwise motion in the same direction to a different chord tone

accented pt:

Occurs in any voice

Stepwise motion

Ascending or descending

Occurs on the beat

Accented NHT’s
accented nht s1
Neighbor tone - nt

Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion either ascending or descending to a NHT and then back to the same chord tone

Accented nt:

Occurs in any voice

Stepwise motion

Ascending or descending

Occurs on the beat

Accented NHT’s
accented nht s2
Suspension - sus

Moving from a chord tone to the same tone as a NHT and then resolving by descending in stepwise motion to a chord tone

Accented sus:

Occurs in any voice

3 parts-preparation, suspension, resolution

ALWAYS Accented

Accented NHT’s
accented nht s3
Retardation - ret

Moving from a chord tone to the same tone as a NHT and then resolving by ascending in stepwise motion to a chord tone

Accented ret:

Usually occurs in Soprano

3 parts-preparation, retardation, resolution

ALWAYS Accented

Accented NHT’s
accented nht s4
Appoggiatura

Moving from a chord tone by a skip to a NHT and then resolving in stepwise motion in the opposite direction to a chord tone

Accented app:

Usually occurs in Soprano

Usually Accented

Accented NHT’s
other nht s
Successive Passing Tones

Two passing tones filling in the space of a fourth

may be accented or unaccented

Changing Tones - ct

Two successive NHT’s - the first leads by step from a chord tone, skips to a second NHT and then leads back by stepwise motion to a chord tone

Usually unaccented

Other NHT’s
other nht s1
Pedal Tone - ped

A held or repeated note that alternates between dissonance (NHT) and consonance

Usually in the bass

Most often the chords above change to create the dissonance

If it occurs above the other voices it is called an inverted pedal tone

May be either accented or unaccented

Other NHT’s
homework
Homework!!!
  • Textbook - pg. 103-107, 5.2-5.4 5.4 only nos.1 and 2
  • DUE WED!!!
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