Unit 7: Kinetics and Thermodynamics

Unit 7: Kinetics and Thermodynamics PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Heat (Enthalpy) Change. The amount of heat energy released or absorbed during a process.. Endothermic: . Exothermic: . Processes in which energy is absorbed as it proceeds, and surroundings become colder. Processes in which energy is released as it proceeds, and surroundings become warmer. Units for Measuring Heat.

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Unit 7: Kinetics and Thermodynamics

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1. Unit 7: Kinetics and Thermodynamics

2. Heat (Enthalpy) Change

3. Units for Measuring Heat

4. A Bomb Calorimeter

5. A Cheaper Calorimeter

6. Specific Heat

7. Calculations Involving Specific Heat

8. Table of Specific Heats

9. Latent Heat of Phase Change Molar Heat of Fusion

10. Latent Heat of Phase Change #2 Molar Heat of Vaporization

11. Latent Heat – Sample Problem Problem: The molar heat of fusion of water is 6.009 kJ/mol. How much energy is needed to convert 60 grams of ice at 0?C to liquid water at0?C?

12. Heat of Solution

13. Chemical Kinetics The area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates.

14. Collision Model

15. Reaction Rate

16. 2NO2(g) ? 2NO(g) + O2(g)

17. Activation Energy

18. Endothermic Reactions

19. Exothermic Reactions

20. Factors Affecting Rate

21. Catalysis Catalyst: A substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed Enzyme: A large molecule (usually a protein) that catalyzes biological reactions. Homogeneous catalyst: Present in the same phase as the reacting molecules. Heterogeneous catalyst: Present in a different phase than the reacting molecules.

22. Catalysts Increase the Number of Effective Collisions

23. Endothermic Reaction with a Catalyst

24. Exothermic Reaction with a Catalyst

25. Chemical Equilibrium

26. LeChatelier’s Principle When a system at equilibrium is placed under stress, the system will undergo a change in such a way as to relieve that stress.

27. When you take something away from a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in such a way as to replace what you’ve taken away. Le Chatelier Translated:

28. LeChatelier Example #1

29. LeChatelier Example #2

30. LeChatelier Example #3

31. LeChatelier Example #4

32. Enthalpy and Entropy

33. Spontaneity of Reactions

34. ?H, ?S, ?G and Spontaneity ?G = ?H - T?S H is enthalpy, T is Kelvin temperature

35. Reaction Mechanism

36. Rate-Determining Step In a multi-step reaction, the slowest step is the rate-determining step. It therefore determines the rate of reaction.

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