LIVING AND WORKING: THE FUNCTION AND DESIGN OF HOUSING FOR LOW-INCOME HOMEBASED WORKERS
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LIVING AND WORKING: THE FUNCTION AND DESIGN OF HOUSING FOR LOW-INCOME HOMEBASED WORKERS. Nandini Bhaskara Rao University of Michigan Contact: [email protected] Introduction. Purpose

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LIVING AND WORKING: THE FUNCTION AND DESIGN OF HOUSING FOR LOW-INCOME HOMEBASED WORKERS

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Living and working the function and design of housing for low income homebased workers

LIVING AND WORKING: THE FUNCTION AND DESIGN OF HOUSING FOR LOW-INCOME HOMEBASED WORKERS

Nandini Bhaskara Rao

University of Michigan

Contact: [email protected]


Introduction

Introduction

Purpose

To understand the spatial and social impacts of home-based work on the function and design of housing for low-income home-based workers.


Introduction1

Introduction

Hussain Sagar

Hyderabad

River Musi

Mir Alam Tank

Old City


Introduction2

Introduction

Methodology

Qualitative Case Study Approach

Data Sources

Semi-structured Interviews with 38 Female Homeworkers

Ethnographic Field notes

Photographs

House Plans


Characteristics of homeworkers

Characteristics of Homeworkers

Distribution of Homeworkers by Income Generating Activity

Entrepreneurial activities: 58% Wage-based activities: 40% Unpaid Worker: 2%


Characteristics of homeworkers1

Characteristics of Homeworkers

Distribution of Homeworkers by Religion

Distribution of Homeworkers by Marital Status

Distribution of Homeworkers by Education Level


Characteristics of homeworkers2

Characteristics of Homeworkers

Own: 47%

Rent: 32%

Other: 21%

Distribution of Homeworkers by Homeownership Status


Implications of using the house for income generation

Implications of Using the House for Income Generation

Availability of Space within the House

Small houses – 5 to 20 sq.m

One Room Units

Most domestic and income generating activities occur within this space

Work Area

Transitional Space

Kitchen Area

Door

P R I V A T E D O M A I N

P U B L I C D O M A I N

TV

Bed

Storage under the bed

Window

Typical Floor Plan on One-Room Unit


Implications of using the house for income generation1

Implications of Using the House for Income Generation

Private-Public Barrier: Utilization of Transitional Space

Choice of location to work within the house based on

Availability of light

Ease of social interaction

Social benefits to homeworkers

Access to public space otherwise inaccessible

Opportunity to build/strengthen social/

community networks

Access to information


Implications of using the house for income generation2

Implications of Using the House for Income Generation

Temporal Segregation of Activities

Domestic and Income Generation activities done mostly within the house

Activities managed by creating a temporal separation

Domestic activities: 5:00 AM – 10: 00 AM

Productive activities: 10: AM – 5:30 PM

Domestic activities: 5:30 PM – 11:00 PM

Need for segregation of activities

Creates a psychological separation between paid and unpaid work

Creates a separation between household (domestic) and individual (paid) work


Neighborhood linkages and impact on home based work

Neighborhood Linkages and Impact on Home-Based Work

Availability and Usage of Common Spaces

Availability of Common Spaces in slum depends on

Physical form of slum

Building density in slum

Nature of home-based work

Acceptance of neighbors and community members

Types of Common Spaces

Courtyards and Front/Back yards

Cul-de sacs

Streets


Neighborhood linkages and impact on home based work1

Neighborhood Linkages and Impact on Home-Based Work

Availability and Usage of Common Spaces

Activities in Common Spaces

Ancillary productive activities – drying and finishing products, packaging and storing,

Domestic activities – washing clothes and utensils

Benefits to homeworkers

Reduces space constraints

Access to common spaces allows homeworkers to be employed in activities they may otherwise opt out of

Access to public domain and social networks


Neighborhood linkages and impact on home based work2

Neighborhood Linkages and Impact on Home-Based Work

Impact of Location on Availability of Semi-Public and Public Spaces

Availability of semi-public and public areas in slums depends on location of slum

Location and surrounding areas have an impact on

Physical size of slum

Physical size and shape of open spaces

Acceptance by neighbors and community members of usage

Impact of Location on Homework

Access to Consumers/Purchasers

Access to Raw Materials


Living and working the function and design of housing for low income homebased workers

Hussain Sagar

Slums in predominantly residential areas

Hyderabad

Slums in predominantly commercial areas

River Musi

Old City

Mir Alam Tank


Urban linkages and implications on home based workers

Urban Linkages and Implications on Home-Based Workers

Impact of Location on Homeownership

Availability of land

Affordability

Housing Options

Opportunity to consolidate housing

Opportunities to legalize housing

Impact of Location on Availability of Employment Opportunities

Availability of employment opportunities

Choices of employment available

Access to private/government job/skill training programs

Linkages to consumers and raw materials


Conclusions

Conclusions

Spatial Implications of Homework

Severe space constraints

Stress on space increased

- For space intensive activities – food preparation, agarbatti and papad making, zardosi

- In renter households

- In slums in Old City

- During monsoon and holiday season with more people in the house

Space constraint issues resolved by temporal segregation of activities

- Creates a psychological separation between paid and unpaid work

- Creates a psychological separation between individual and household work

Utilization of transitional space between private and public domains

Empowers homeworkers by providing

- Access to public spaces otherwise inaccessible – very important for Muslim households living in Old City

- Access to some public information/knowledge

- Access to social networks


Conclusions1

Conclusions

Neighborhood Linkages and Impact on Home-Based Work

  • Availability and Usage of Common Spaces

    Empowers homeworkers by

    - Decreasing the stress on space within the house, but exacerbates problems during monsoon reducing productivity and therefore income.

    - Increases employment options, otherwise hampered by space

    - Increases access to public domain and social network

  • Ability to use common space dependent on location and religion

    - Muslim women in the Old City did not benefit from common spaces

    -- slums in the Old City have few open space

    -- more men in the house/community during the day

    -- social custom of purdah prevalent

    - Hindu women living in slums in residential areas of Hyderabad benefit the most from the availability and usage of common spaces


Conclusions2

Conclusions

Urban Linkages and Impact on Home-Based Work

  • Impact of Geographic Location on Homeownership Rates

    Increased opportunities

    - To own a house in slums in residential areas in Hyderabad

    - To gain legal rights to illegally occupied land

    - Options for housing – more affordability to purchase

    Extremely low chance

    - To own a house in slums in commercial and residential areas in Hyderabad and the Old City

    - To illegally occupy land

    - Limited options for housing – expensive, poor quality housing


Conclusions3

Conclusions

Urban Linkages and Impact on Home-Based Work

  • Impact of Geographic Location on Employment Opportunities

    Increased wage-based homework opportunities

    - For women living in slums in commercial areas in Hyderabad and the Old City

    - For women with skills in zardosi, bangle and bidi making

    Increased self-employed homework opportunities

    - For women in Hyderabad with linkages to training institutions


Conclusions4

Conclusions

Planning and Policy Recommendations

  • When legalizing slums and consolidating housing through government programs retain and create common semi-public spaces for use of homeworkers and women

  • Make provisions in government programs to provide homeownership for low-income households living in slums in commercial areas

  • Provide more job/skill training facilities in the commercial areas of Hyderabad and the Old City


Introduction3

Introduction

Conceptual Framework


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