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Exploration 1450-1700 Is contact with other cultures beneficial or harmful to a civilization?. Exploration-In a Nutshell. When: 1450-1700 What: Exploration, Conquest, Colonization Who: Portugal, Spain, France, the Dutch, England and other European countries

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Exploration1450-1700 Is contact with other cultures beneficial or harmful to a civilization?


Exploration-In a Nutshell

  • When: 1450-1700

  • What: Exploration, Conquest, Colonization

  • Who: Portugal, Spain, France, the Dutch, England and other European countries

  • Where: Africa, the Americas, Asia

  • Result: Diffusion of ideas and cultural forces that reshaped the global environment


Order of Exploration by Country

  • Portugal

  • Spain

  • France

  • The Dutch

  • England


The Order That Conquest and Colonization Happened

  • Explorers

  • Conquistadors

  • Missionaries

  • Permanent Settlers

  • Official European Colony


Major Explorers and Their Voyages

  • Bartholomeu Dias’ voyage (1487)

  • Christopher Columbus’ first voyage (1492-1493)

  • Christopher Columbus’ second voyage (1493-1496)

  • Vasco da Gama’s voyage to India (1497-1499)

  • John Cabot’s first voyage (1497)

  • John Cabot’s second voyage (1498)

  • Christopher Columbus’ third voyage (1498)

  • Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1499-1500)

  • Christopher Columbus’ fourth voyage (1502-1503)

  • Magellan’s voyage around the world (1519-1522)


A Map of the Known World Before 1492


What Encouraged Exploration?

  • Marco Polo took the Silk Road, returned 23 years later to Venice with the goods and ideas he had brought back from China.


What Encouraged Exploration?

  • Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1448-people could read accounts of previous explorers.

  • Nations seeking new sources of revenue.

  • Desire to spread Christianity

  • Generally curiosity about the world


The Three G’s

  • Gold-Wealth of all kind

  • Glory-More land meant glory for their kingdoms

  • God- Convert the native people to Christianity After the Reformation there was competition between the Catholics and Protestants to win converts


The PortuguesePrince Henry “The Navigator”

Not an explorer but was a patron and sponsor

Created a navigation school at Sagres, Portugal to encourage exploration

Portugal was the first country to launch large-scale voyages of exploration


What Prince Henry the Navigator Wanted

  • Prince Henry gathered scientists, cartographers-mapmakers- and other experts at his navigation school

  • Goal: to find a water route to Asia to allow Portugal to trade directly with the East

  • He died before the route was found.

  • Portugal learned a lot about the African coast line including that gold and slaves were plentiful!


New Maritime Technology

Hartman Astrolabe1532

Caravel: Faster, more economical.

Could navigate shallow coastal

waters and rivers.

Lateen Sail: triangular sail

Mariner’s Compass


Improvements in Navigation

  • Better maps: follow coasts at first, used compass

  • Better ships: Caravels- square sails and new hull design, heavy enough to carry canon

  • Astrolabe- magnetic compass to sail by the stars

  • Knowledge of wind patterns

The astrolabe was used to determine latitude, the north-south position on the globe, by measuring the height or altitude of celestial bodies over the horizon and making a calculation using the known declination of the star.


Magnetic Compass


Caravel


  • The Portuguese

  • Go To

  • Africa and to Asia


Portuguese in Bahrain

  • Built Forts to establish their presence.


Bartolomeu Dias

  • Portuguese sailed for Portugal.

  • First European to round the Cape of Good Hope in 1488-did not make it to Asia

  • Dias accompanied Cabral on the voyage that resulted in the discovery of Brazil

  • Died in heavy seas off the African coast May 29, 1500.


Vasco da Gama

  • Portuguese-sailed for Portugal

  • Opened a new water route for trade between Europe and Asia

  • 1497-98, the first to travel around the southern most tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope and reach India.


Vasco da Gama

  • Very profitable voyage- returned with a cargo of spices and made a profit of several thousand percent.

  • Died of an illness in India on December 24, 1524


Vasco da Gama First Voyage 1497–1499

Cape of Good Hope


The Portuguese in Africa

  • King Affonso was the ruler of Kongo

  • Worked as a partner with the Portuguese to modernize his country into a Christian state

  • The Portuguese also wanted slaves

  • Initially slavery was limited to war captives, who were numerous because of various local battles and continual border disputes

  • When Affonso realized the toll the slave trade was taking on Kongo he wrote letters to the King of Portugal describing how his society was being ruined because of the slave trade

  • Affonso was not successful at stopping the slave trade.


Ferdinand Magellan

  • Portuguese-sailed for Spain

  • Sailed around the southern tip of South America.

  • His crew was the first to circumnavigate-go around- the earth

  • This voyage: 1519-1522 proved that the world was round


Magellan named the Pacific Ocean after the Latin word meaning peaceful.


  • The Spaniards find the New World- By accident!


The Spanish

  • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand wanted Spain to be a united, Catholic kingdom

  • Inquisition- Ordered all Jews and Muslims to convert or leave Spain. Even Christians could be punished if they were suspected of defying the church.

  • They were eager to spread Catholicism and profit from new trade routes


Christopher Columbus

  • From Genoa sailed for Spain

  • Convinced Queen Isabella to back his voyage

  • Believed that he could reach Asia, in the east, by sailing west

  • Did not know about American continents


The First Voyage


The First Voyage

  • Set sail on August 3, 1492

  • Crew of 90 men, two caravels -the Niña and the Pinta- and his flagship, the Santa Maria

  • Near mutinous situation on the ship: terrible conditions voyage was taking far longer than thought

  • Columbus promised his men they would turn back if land was not spotted in three days


The First Voyage

  • Landed in the Bahamas October 12, 1492

  • He called it San Salvador

  • Called the native people ‘los Indios’ Inhabitants of the Indies

  • They were Tainos.


Columbus Greeted by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Upon His Return to Spain From the New World


Other Voyages of Columbus

  • Columbus had a total of four voyages

  • Approach to natives and Spanish alike proved to be brutal in other voyages

  • Spanish colonists’ rebel and set up own colonies

  • Sent back to Spain in chains for being a tyrannical leader

  • May 11, 1502-Fouth voyage

  • Fernando, his son goes with him

  • Died in Spain believing he explored part of Asia


Voyages of Christopher Columbus


  • Spain and Portugal compete with each other for trade profits, so who gets what?


Why is Portuguese Spoken in Brazil?


The Treaty of Tordesillas

The Pope Split the “New World” between

Spain and Portugal

  • The Pope’s Line of Demarcation


Treaty Details

  • The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty between Portugal and Spain in 1494

  • Divided up all the land on the Earth outside of Europe, no matter who was already living there.

  • Pope Alexander VI was the pope at the time of the treaty.

  • He drew an imaginary line 480 kilometers to the west of the Cape Verde Islands, gave Portugal the land to the east of this line, and gave Spain the land to the west of this line.

  • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were the rulers of Spain at the time.

  • This treaty was signed at Tordesillas, hence the name of it.


The Treaty of Tordesillas

The House on the top center left to the tower is where the treaty was concluded in 1494

The treaty with the signatureof the sovereign of Spain and Portugal


Amerigo Vespucci

  • Born in Florence, worked for the Medici and sailed for Spain

  • Sailed around the coast of South America and concluded it was not Asia but a new land.

  • America was later named after him for this vital discovery.


The Columbian Exchange

  • An exchange between the Americas and the rest of the world.

  • Result of Columbus’s voyages to the New Word,

  • European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American Indians

  • European diseases like smallpox killed many American Indians


Triangular Trade

  • Included slaves and manufactured goods


The Columbian Exchange


Disease

  • Smallpox, measles, and influenza

  • Natives had no immunity, or resistance, to disease

  • Wiped out village after village

  • By 1500 as much as 90% of the native population in the Caribbean had died

  • Great advantage to the Europeans wanting to take control of the indigenous people


Horses on Boats!


Impact of the Columbian Exchange

  • Europeans needed labor to farm the land: plantation system/Encomienda.

  • Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of slaves from the Americas and Africa.

  • Slavery was based on race.


Encomienda System

  • Encomienda: the right of the Spanish government to use Native Americans as laborers but not necessarily as slaves.

  • Began in 1503

  • Result of the plantation system: Destroyed the indigenous population and economics

  • Damaged the environment.


Father Bartolomé de Las Casas

  • Dedicated his life to abolishing the Encomienda system.

  • Proposed replacing the slave labor of the natives with slaves from Africa.

  • He eventually recanted this as well, and became an advocate for the Africans in the colonies


Middle Passage

  • The stage of triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were taken to the New World

  • Ships departed Europe for Africa with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans

  • Africans were transported across the Atlantic

  • Slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials


African Slavery


Triangular Trade


Plan of A Slave Ship


Consequences of the African Slave Trade

  • African families torn apart

  • African culture lost generations of members

  • Through the skills and labor of African slaves, the economy of the Americas prospers


Colonial Economies

  • Colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country

  • Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country

  • A major element of the economy was the mining of precious metals for export

  • Outposts of colonial authority were established in major cities: Havana, Mexico City, Lima, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires


Commercial Revolution

  • European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies, and resources.

  • The belief was that there was a limited amount of wealth in the world so a country had to get their hands on as much of it as possible

  • New money and banking systems were created.

  • A new economic system emerged~ mercantilism


Mercantilism

  • According to mercantilists, the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of bullion, or gold and silver.

  • Mercantilism was an economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient

  • This set of principles dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century


Balance of Trade

  • The difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports over time


  • Conquest of South America


Hernán Cortés and the Aztec

  • 1521- Cortes conquered Montezuma and the Aztec’s in Tenochtitlan, Mexico

  • Mexico City was rebuilt on the ruins of Tenochtitlan


Tenochtitlan by Hernán Cortés

  • This 1524 map depicts the thriving Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, based on the eyewitness account of Hernán Cortés.

  • Printed map, hand colored


Pizarro Defeated the Inca

  • 1532- Collision at Cajamarca

  • You already know the rest of the story!!


  • Colonies


Characteristics of the Colonial System

  • Colonial governments mirrored the home governments

  • A viceroy, or representative ruled in the name of the King (monarch)

Francisco de Almeida,

first viceroy of Portuguese India


A Layered Society

  • The separation of the various peoples in the colonies created a very intricate list of names to describe one's precise race and, by consequence, one's place in society

  • Peninsulares-born in Spain, held highest positions in colonial government and Catholic Church

  • Creole- American born descendants of Spanish settlers, owned most of the plantations, ranches and mines.


A Layered Society

  • Mestizo- Native American and European descendant

  • Mulatto- African and European descendant

  • African and Native American descendant were the lowest social class

"Spaniard and Indian produce Mestizo"


  • The philosophy led to the separation of the various peoples in the colonies and created a very intricate list of

  • nomenclature to describe one's precise race and, by consequence, one's place in society. To illustrate how

  • complex this nomenclature became the following list was in use in New Spain (Mexico) during the eighteenth

  • century:

  • Spaniard and Indian = Mestizo (50% European and 50% Native American)

  • Mestizo and Spanish woman = Castizo (75% European and 25% Native American)

  • Castizo woman and Spaniard = Spaniard (87.5% European and 12.5% Native American)

  • Spanish woman and black man = Mulatto (50% European and 50% African)

  • Spaniard and Mulatto = Morisco (75% European and 25% African)

  • Morisco woman and Spaniard = Albino (87.5% European and 12.5% African)

  • Spaniard and Albino woman = Torna atrás (lit. "turn back") (93,75% European and 6,25% African)

  • Indian man and Torna atrás woman = Lobo (50% Native American, 46,875% European, and 3,125% African)

  • Lobo and Indian woman = Zambaigo (75% Native American, 23,4375% European, and 1,5625% African)

  • Zambaigo and Indian woman = Cambujo (87.5% Native American, 11,71875% European, and 0,78125% African)

  • Cambujo and mulatto woman = Albarazado (43.75% Native American, 30,859375% European, and 25,390625% African)

  • Albarazado and Mulatto woman = Barcino (40.43% European, 21.87% Native American, and 37.7% African)

  • Barcino and Mulatto woman = Coyote (45.215% European, 10.935% Native American, and 43.85% African)

  • Coyote woman and Indian man = Chamiso (22.6075% European, 55.4675% Native American, and 21.925% African)

  • Chamiso woman and Mestizo = Coyote mestizo (36.30375% European, 52.73375% Native American, and 10.9625% African)

  • Coyote mestizo and Mulatto woman = Ahí te estás ("there you stay") (43.151875% European, 26.366875 Native American, and 30.48125 African)


Population Distribution of Spanish America


Other Explorers


  • Sailing for Spain…


Vasco Núñez de Balboa

  • Balboa led an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama in1513.

  • Balboa became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean


  • Sailing for England…


John Cabot

  • Italian-Sailed for England

  • June 21, 1497 John Cabot landed in Nova Scotia

  • Shipwrecked and drowned during second voyage in 1498.

  • Cabot's expeditions were the first of Britain's claims to Canada and East Coast of US


Sir Francis Drake

  • Famous for leading the first English circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580

  • Pirate! His job was to disrupt the Spanish voyages to the New World


Circumnavigation of Drake


  • Sailing for France…


Jacques Cartier

  • French-Voyages funded by Francois I

  • Looking for a passage to Asia

  • 1534- first European to travel inland in North America.

  • Claimed Canada for France

  • Three voyages


  • Sailing for Holland…


The Dutch

  • The first Europeans to challenge Portuguese domination of Asian Trade

  • Goal: to find a Northwest passage.

  • Is there a Northwest passage?

  • English sailor Henry Hudson claimed New York for the Dutch in 1609.


Canada


END PPT

  • Other information follows:


Curriculum Guide:

  • Ferdinand Magellan

  • Prince Henry the Navigator

  • Vasco da Gama

  • Francisco Pizzarro

  • Jacques Cartier

  • Christopher Columbus

  • Francis Drake

  • Hernan Cortez


  • Portugal—Vasco da Gama

  • Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan

  • England—Francis Drake

  • France—Jacques Cartier


Sources

  • http://ambassadors.net/archives/issue19/profile.htm

  • http://www.kwabs.com/tordesillas_treaty.html

  • Vespucci: http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi43.htm

  • Spanish Empire: http://video.answers.com/history-of-the-spanish-empire-298065658

  • Layered society

  • http://forum.stirpes.net/revisionism/24791-learn-about-our-history-multiculturalism-mestizaje-details-hints-aply-nowadays.html

  • Slave Trade: http://www.afbis.com/analysis/slave.htm

  • After Pizarro: Food in Colonial Peru and Today (Conclusion):

  • http://gherkinstomatoes.com/2008/12/08/after-pizarro-colonial-peru-conclusion/


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