HAWAIIAN LAVA FLOWS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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HAWAIIAN LAVA FLOWS. -. Lava flows: ‘a‘ā and pāhoehoe. From Hawaiian Dictionary by M.K. Puku‘i & S.H. Elbert. ‘a‘ā : 1. To burn, blaze, glow; fire; staring, as eyes. angry, fury. e.g. Ua ‘a‘ā ‘ ia au i ke aloha (I burn with love) 2. stony, abounding with ‘a‘ā lava.

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Lava flows: ‘a‘ā and pāhoehoe

From Hawaiian Dictionaryby M.K. Puku‘i & S.H. Elbert

‘a‘ā: 1. To burn, blaze, glow; fire; staring,

as eyes. angry, fury.

e.g. Ua ‘a‘ā‘ ia au i ke aloha (I burn with love)

2. stony, abounding with ‘a‘ā lava.

pāhoehoe: 1. Smooth, unbroken type of lava.

2. Satin.

3. to drive fish into a net by beating the

paddles rhythmically against the canoe.

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Lava flows: ‘a‘ā and pāhoehoe

These two types of flow are identical chemically (what they’re made of).

Their differences are due to different

emplacement processes (how the lava flows out of

the volcano) - flow rates, cooling rates, etc.

Pāhūhū: to gush, ooze forth

Ho‘opōhaku: to harden, as lava

(Courtesy of Ululani Makue)

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‘a‘ā and pāhoehoe flows on the north flank of Mauna Loa

~3 m

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Wave-cut cliff section, Makapu‘u, O‘ahu

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‘a‘ā flows

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When moving, the incandescent interior deforms fluidly (the glowing lava inside breaks apart and cools as it flows)

~1 m

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The top surface is relatively small, spiny clinkers

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Distal-type ‘a‘ā flows

standard geologists

for scale

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Air photo of the distal end of the 1942 Mauna Loa flow

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Three relatively thin ‘a‘ā flows in cross section

flow cores


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Pāhoehoe flows

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Flow field of pāhoehoe


(individual flow units)

~0.5 m

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active pāhoehoe toe

~20 cm

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Pāhoehoe issuing from a crack in a previous toe

~40 cm

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Old pāhoehoe flows in cliff section, Kaua‘i

~2 m

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‘Olelo no‘eau involving lava

(from M. K. Pukui; compiled by Ululani Makue)

O ka lā ko luna, o ka pāhoehoe ko lalo. The sun

above, the smooth lava below. Said of a journey in

which the traveler suffers the heat of the sun

above and the reflected heat from the lava below

(a difficult trip).

Kīkē ka ‘alā, uwē ka māmane. When the boulders

clash, the mamane tree weeps. Meaning that when

two people fight, those that are dear to them

often weep.

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Volcano activity:Upward Bound students at LCC, summer 2008

  • Paper cup with it’s top cut off = “volcano”

  • “volcano” is taped around the bottom to cardboard

  • Baking soda & Alka Seltzer is put in cup

  • Vinegar w/gelatin is poured into volcano

    • “Eruption” occurs

  • Extent of eruption is marked with a pen

    • Then filled in with Play-doh

  • Multiple eruptions are generated

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Students preparing for volcano demo:

Cutting paper cup

Crushing AlkaSeltzer

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Student adds Alka Seltzer to baking soda for added


“volcano” with

tape around the

bottom to prevent/minimize leaking

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Vinegar added to the baking soda/Alka Seltzer mix

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Plah-doh marks the extent of the “lava flow”

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A second eruption is generated,and overlays the 1st

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the 2nd lava


A third lava flow - note yellow play-doh,

You can take a “core” of the lava flows using a straw

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