Human information processing
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HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING. OTHER SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATION.

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HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING

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Human information processing

HUMAN INFORMATIONPROCESSING

OTHER SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATION


Human information processing

Four volunteers lived for an entire month in the strange reverse world we see while shaving or applying lipstick. Wearing special 'prism spectacles' designed to reverse their vision meant that to go left they had to turn right, and if they looked one way to catch a tennis ball, it would hit them on the back

BRAIN ADAPTATION TO

REVERSED LEFT-RIGHT

PICTURES


Human information processing

It took three weeks of adaptation for correct answers to appear, suggesting that a new imagined hand representation was emerging; the volunteers said they could visualize their own hands in two ways and could even choose between the two images.

Brain scans associated activity with these new hand images in a region called 'Broca's area' that creates mental pictures of movement. These imagined images help us plan -- and mimic -- movements says Rushworth; explaining why a non-cricketer for example, could do a passable impression of Brian Lara after seeing him in action.

The results lend weight to an emerging theory that this brain region helps us adapt when what we see and what we experience clash, Rushworth adds. This brings possible implications for understanding how brain-damage patients recover, he says, but will be of little clinical use at present


Human information processing

ONE ANGLE OR

TWO

CHOPSTICKS ?

  • MORE PICTURES

    ILLUSTRATING

    VISUAL ALGORITHMS

  • THE SYSTEM

    CREATES STABLE

    REPRESENTATION


Human information processing

WE SEE HERE ILLUSORY CONTOURS OF OBJECTS

VISUAL SYSTEM IS REALLY GOOD IN EXTRACTING THEM


Human information processing

JUNCTIONS ARE CRITICAL FOR OBJECT

PERECPTION COMPARE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES


Human information processing

LIGHT DIRECTION

  • VISUAL SYSTEM ASSUMES THAT LIGHT

    IS COMING FROM TOP

SAME PICTURE UPSIDE DOWN


Human information processing

  • IN ALL FIGURES GREY ELEMENTS HAVE

    THEY SAME INTENSITY

BUT PERCEIVED INTENSITY DEPENDS ON THE

SURROUNDING AREA. VISUAL SYSTEM IS THUS

NOT AN OBJECTIVE LIGHT INTENSITY MEASURING

DEVICE


Human information processing

  • WHERE IS THE LIGHT SOURCE?

  • WE CAN ESTABLISH ITS POSITION FROM

    SHADOWS OF OBJECTS


Human information processing

  • OBJECTS CAN BE EASILY RECOGNIZED

    FROM MOTION OF DOTS IF THEY ARE

    MOUNTED ON THE OBJECT


Human information processing

  • VISUAL SYSTEM IS ONE IMPORANT

    PART OF HIP BUT THERE ARE OTHERS:

  • ACOUSTICAL SYSTEM

  • HAPTIC SYSTEM (TOUCH)

  • VESTIBULAR (ORIENTATION IN SPACE)

  • SMELL

  • TASTE


Human information processing

  • ACOUSTICAL SYSTEM

    HEARING + SOUND/SPEECH PRODUCTION

    THIS IS MATCHED RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER

VESTIBULAR

SYSTEM


Human information processing

  • COCHLEA – SOUND TRANSDUCER

MODEL OF COHLEAR

TRANSDUCER

SOUND PRESSURE IS CHANGED INTO

FLUID PRESSURE

UT

OUTPUT IS MAXIMUM FOR CERTAIN FREQUENCY

AT SOME POSITION ALONG THE TRANSDUCER


Human information processing

  • HAIRS – CHANGE THE MECHANICAL

    SIGNAL INTO ELECTRICAL


Human information processing

  • ACOUSTICAL SIGNALS – CAN BE

    ANALYZED IN TIME AND FREQUENCY OR

    BOTH. AND BOTH SYSTEMS SEEM TO

    BE PRESENT IN THE BRAIN

WE ARE ABLE TO DETECT PRECISELY FREQUENCY OF TONES

E.G. SINUSOIDS

AND POSITION OF SOUNDS IN TIME

E.G. CLICKS

IN THE ACOUSTICAL CORTEX THERE ARE TIME DETECTORS (PLACE) AND FREQUENCY DETECTORS. BOTH TYPE OF SYSTEMS OPERATE AT SOME FREQUENCY RANGES (TOP)

FILTERS ARE BROADLY TUNED

(BOTTOM)


Human information processing

WE CAN SEE SEVERAL STAGES FOM COCHLEA TO

CORTEX

SUPERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS IS THE PLACE

WHERE SPATIAL SOUND

PROCESSING STARTS

MAPPING INTO FREQUENCY

AND SPACE LOCATIONS IS

PRESENT, LIKE IN VISION

IT WAS FOR LOCAL SIGNAL

FEATURES

  • THE STRUCTURE OF HEARING SYSTEM


Human information processing

WE HAVE´SENSITIVITIES FOR DIFFEERENT FREQUENCIES, HIGHEST IS

IN MIDDLE RANGE

MUSIC FROM INSTRUMENTS CAN BE VERY EFFICIENTLY

RECOGINZED. THIS MUST BE BASED ON DETAILED

FREQUENCY AND TIME ANALYSIS


Human information processing

LOCALIZATION OF SOUND SOURCES

IN SPACE IS BASED ON MEASURING

DIFFERENCES IN TIME OF SOUND ARRIVAL

BETWEEN THE EARS. THIS MUST BE VERY

PRECISE MEASUREMENT, ON THE ORDER

OF TENS OF MICROSECONDS

SOUND LOCALIZATION IS QUITE PRECISE

BUT HEAD MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL

CUES HELP A LOT, ERRORS IN LOCATION

CAN BE SEEN IN PICTURES


Human information processing

MUSIC PROCESSING....


Human information processing

CERTAIN TONES HAVE HARMONY, THEY SOUND NICE TO US,

OTHR TONES NOT. WE ARE PROBABLY BORN WITH A SYSTEM

WHICH PROCESSES TONES AND THUS WE ARE PREDISPOSED

FOR CERTAIN SOUNDS WHICH ARE ”NATURAL” FOR US


Human information processing

  • SPEECH PROCESSING SYSTEM

    A COMPLEX ELASTIC MECHANICAL SYSTEM CONTROLLED

    ELECTRICALLY FOR REGULATION OF AIRFLOW


Human information processing

  • BASIC UNITS OF SPEECH –PHONEMS

    USING THESE UNITS SPEECH CAN BE GENERATED

HEARING AND SPEECH ARE PRECISLY MATCHED TO EACH OTHER

SPEECH CAN BE RECOGNIZED EVEN AT HIGH LEVEL OF NOISE

AND INTERFERENCE (COCTAIL PARTY EFFECT, MANY PEOPLE ARE

TALKING AT THE SMAE TIME BUT WE ARE ABLE TO CONCENTRATE

ON ONE SPEAKER.


Human information processing

  • VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

    NOTE THAT THE WORLD WE SEE IS STABLE, WHILE

    PICTURES ON RETINAS OF EYES ARE NOT. MOVEMENTS

    ARE COMPENSATED BY SIGNALS FROM VESTIBULAR

    SYSTEM (ORIENTATION IN SPACE)

EXAMPLE: WHEN PERSON IS ROTATING ON A PLATFORM IN

DARK ROOM, HORIZONTAL LINE WILL BE DEFLECTED


Human information processing

  • TOUCH SYSTEM

    IT HAS RECEPTORS IN THE BODY.

    IN THE BRAIN THERE IS MAPPING OF

    THE BODY IN THE CORTEX


Human information processing

  • MAPPING OF BODY PARTS IN THE

    SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX


Human information processing

  • SKIN RECEPTORS OF TOUCH

    (CAPSULES AT THE NERVE ENDINGS)


Human information processing

  • TOUCH SENSITIVITY THRESHOLD FOR

    FEMALES OVER THE BODY


Human information processing

  • TOUCH SENSITIVITY THRESHOLD FOR

    MALES


Human information processing

FEMALES ARE MORE SENSITIVE!!!


Human information processing

WHAT IS PAIN?

IT IS SIGNALLING FROM THE

BODY TO THE BRAIN ABOUT

IMPROPER OPERATION

THE BRAIN CHANGES ITS ACTION

TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM

THERE IS ALSO A SYSTEM FOR

IHIBITING THE PAIN SIGNALS

  • PAIN SYSTEM


Human information processing

IT IS ACTIVATION OF TOUCH

AND PAIN SYSTEM IN ORDER

TO STIMULATE OTHER

BRAIN STRUCTURES

PERHAPS IMMUNE SYSTEM IS

STIMULATED???

  • ACUPUNCTURE


Integration of senses in biological systems

INTEGRATION OF SENSESIN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

WE COULD CALL IT

”BIOLOGICAL MULTIMEDIA”

but this is ONLY A JOKE!


Human information processing

  • PEOPLE HAVE FANTASTIC CAPABILITIES IN RECEIVING AND PRODUCING INFORMATION BY DIFFERENT SENSES AND SYSTEMS

    FOR EXAMPLE THEY CAN SPEAK,

    LISTEN AND DANCE AT THE SAME TIME

    HOW SUCH THINGS ARE CONTROLLED

    AND ORGANIZED IN THE BRAIN?

LET’S SEE FIRST SOME OF THE BRAIN CAPABILITIES

(SOME OF THEM QUITE FUNNY TOO)


Human information processing

CROSSMODAL MATCHING

HERE THE PERSON MUST RECOGNIZE OBJECT VISUALLY,

RECOGNIZE OBJECT TACTILLY, COMPARE THEM AND MATCH

HOW THIS IS DONE? PROBABLY INFORMATION FROM DIFFERENT

SENSES IS STORED IN SOME GENERAL WAY, INEPENDENT FROM

PARTICULAR SENSE


Human information processing

SOME PEOPLE HAVE PECULIAR

EXPERIENCE: THEY FEEL E.G. SPECIFIC

SHAPE WHEN FEEL SPECIFIC TASTE

THIS IS CALLED SYNESTHESIA, ONE CAN SPECULATE THAT

SENSORY SIGNALS GET MIXED UP SOMWHERE


Human information processing

  • VENTRILOQUISM - BY COORDINATING

    MOVEMENTS OF A PUPPET WITH SPEECH,

    VENTIRLOQUIST INDUCES STRONG ILLUSION

    THAT THE PUPPET IS SPEAKING


Human information processing

  • HOW THE COORDINATION IS DONE?

DEEP IN THE BRAIN THERE IS A STRUCTURE CALLED

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS


Human information processing

  • IN THIS STRUCTURE THERE ARE

    NEURONS REACTING TO DIFFERENT

    SENSORY INFORMATION:

    THEY ARE MULTIMODAL


Human information processing

  • STIMULATION OF DIFFERENT SENSORY AREAS OF CORTEX WILL PRODUCE

    RESPONSE FROM Superior Colliculus NEURONS:


Human information processing

  • THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF

    MULTIMODAL NEURONS: SOME RESPOND TO 2 DIFFERENT SENSES

    AND SOME TO 3


Human information processing

  • THESE NEURONS HAVE CONNECTIONS

    FROM LAYERS OF SINGLE SENSORY

    NEURONS


Human information processing

  • HERE WE SEE LAYER OF VISUAL

    NEURONS FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS

    THEY FORM A MAP OF VISUAL SPACE


Human information processing

  • HERE WE SEE LAYER OF AUDITORY

    NEURONS

    THEY FORM A MAP OF AUDITORY SPACE


Human information processing

  • THE DIFFERENT MAPS

    ARE OVERLAID ON

    EACH OTHER SO THEY

    MATCH!


Human information processing

  • THESE NEURONS RESPOND TO

    OVERLAPPING AREAS FROM DIFFERENT SENSORY MAPS. THEY HAVE

    BROAD RESPONSE


Human information processing

RESPONSE PATTERNS FOR DIFFERENT

BODY AREAS


Human information processing

  • CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENTS

    EAR POSITIONS


Human information processing

  • REACTION OF VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL

    NEURON. REPONSE IS GREATLY

    ENHANCED FOR SIMULTANEOUS

    VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL STIMULATION

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!


Human information processing

  • RESPONSE OF VISUAL-TOUCH

    NEURON. RESPONSE IS ENHANCED

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!


Human information processing

  • TOUCH-VISUAL NEURON.

    RESPONSE ENHANCED

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!


Human information processing

  • TRIMODAL NEURON- SENSITIVE TO 3

    SENSES. RESPONSE TO TWO SENSES

    AT A TIME


Human information processing

  • DEPRESSION OF RESPONSE WHEN

    SIGNALS ARE NOT OPTIMALLY

    SYNCHRONIZED


Human information processing

RESPONSE

DEPRESSED

RESPONSE INCREASED

  • RECEPTIVE FIELD OF NEURON

STRONGEST MULTISENSORY

RESPONSE


Human information processing

  • HOW RESPONSE DEPENDS ON THE POINT OF

    STIMULATION

WE CAN SEE

STRONG DEPRESSION

AND

ENHANCEMENT


Human information processing

  • RESPONSE FOR VISUAL-TOUCH

    NEURON


Human information processing

  • RESPONSE FOR TOUCH-ACOUSTICAL

    NEURON


Human information processing

  • VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL RESPONSE IN

    RELATION TO POSITION OF EARS


Human information processing

  • WHAT HAPPENS IF STIMULATIONS ARE NOT SYNCHRONIZED?

ACOUSTICAL SIGNAL IS EARLIER

THAN TOUCH BY 400, 200, ... MS


Human information processing

  • TOUCH SIGNAL IS EARLIER


Human information processing

  • ACOUSTICAL SIGNAL IS EARLIER

    THAN VISUAL, VERY STRONG PEAK

    RESPONSE BETWEEN 50 AND 0 MS


Human information processing

  • STIMULATION NOT OPTIMAL IN

    SPACE


Human information processing

  • STIMULATION MUST BE SYNCHRONIZED

    IN TIME AND IN SPATIAL POSITION

    TO PROVIDE MAXIMUM RESPONSE


Human information processing

  • WHY ALL THIS IS DONE? BECAUSE

    MUTISENSORY SIGNALS PROVIDE

    MORE AND MORE PRECISE INFORMATION


Human information processing

THE DELAY OF 50 MS FOR OPTIMAL AUDIO

VISUAL RESPONSE MIGHT BE COMING BECAUSE

OF THE DEALAY IN SOUND PROPAGATION

IN 50 MS SOUND MAKES

ABOUT 20 M WHICH

IS RANGE OF OPERATION


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