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HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING. OTHER SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATION.

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HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING

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HUMAN INFORMATIONPROCESSING

OTHER SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATION


Four volunteers lived for an entire month in the strange reverse world we see while shaving or applying lipstick. Wearing special 'prism spectacles' designed to reverse their vision meant that to go left they had to turn right, and if they looked one way to catch a tennis ball, it would hit them on the back

BRAIN ADAPTATION TO

REVERSED LEFT-RIGHT

PICTURES


It took three weeks of adaptation for correct answers to appear, suggesting that a new imagined hand representation was emerging; the volunteers said they could visualize their own hands in two ways and could even choose between the two images.

Brain scans associated activity with these new hand images in a region called 'Broca's area' that creates mental pictures of movement. These imagined images help us plan -- and mimic -- movements says Rushworth; explaining why a non-cricketer for example, could do a passable impression of Brian Lara after seeing him in action.

The results lend weight to an emerging theory that this brain region helps us adapt when what we see and what we experience clash, Rushworth adds. This brings possible implications for understanding how brain-damage patients recover, he says, but will be of little clinical use at present


ONE ANGLE OR

TWO

CHOPSTICKS ?

  • MORE PICTURES

    ILLUSTRATING

    VISUAL ALGORITHMS

  • THE SYSTEM

    CREATES STABLE

    REPRESENTATION


WE SEE HERE ILLUSORY CONTOURS OF OBJECTS

VISUAL SYSTEM IS REALLY GOOD IN EXTRACTING THEM


JUNCTIONS ARE CRITICAL FOR OBJECT

PERECPTION COMPARE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES


LIGHT DIRECTION

  • VISUAL SYSTEM ASSUMES THAT LIGHT

    IS COMING FROM TOP

SAME PICTURE UPSIDE DOWN


  • IN ALL FIGURES GREY ELEMENTS HAVE

    THEY SAME INTENSITY

BUT PERCEIVED INTENSITY DEPENDS ON THE

SURROUNDING AREA. VISUAL SYSTEM IS THUS

NOT AN OBJECTIVE LIGHT INTENSITY MEASURING

DEVICE


  • WHERE IS THE LIGHT SOURCE?

  • WE CAN ESTABLISH ITS POSITION FROM

    SHADOWS OF OBJECTS


  • OBJECTS CAN BE EASILY RECOGNIZED

    FROM MOTION OF DOTS IF THEY ARE

    MOUNTED ON THE OBJECT


  • VISUAL SYSTEM IS ONE IMPORANT

    PART OF HIP BUT THERE ARE OTHERS:

  • ACOUSTICAL SYSTEM

  • HAPTIC SYSTEM (TOUCH)

  • VESTIBULAR (ORIENTATION IN SPACE)

  • SMELL

  • TASTE


  • ACOUSTICAL SYSTEM

    HEARING + SOUND/SPEECH PRODUCTION

    THIS IS MATCHED RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER

VESTIBULAR

SYSTEM


  • COCHLEA – SOUND TRANSDUCER

MODEL OF COHLEAR

TRANSDUCER

SOUND PRESSURE IS CHANGED INTO

FLUID PRESSURE

UT

OUTPUT IS MAXIMUM FOR CERTAIN FREQUENCY

AT SOME POSITION ALONG THE TRANSDUCER


  • HAIRS – CHANGE THE MECHANICAL

    SIGNAL INTO ELECTRICAL


  • ACOUSTICAL SIGNALS – CAN BE

    ANALYZED IN TIME AND FREQUENCY OR

    BOTH. AND BOTH SYSTEMS SEEM TO

    BE PRESENT IN THE BRAIN

WE ARE ABLE TO DETECT PRECISELY FREQUENCY OF TONES

E.G. SINUSOIDS

AND POSITION OF SOUNDS IN TIME

E.G. CLICKS

IN THE ACOUSTICAL CORTEX THERE ARE TIME DETECTORS (PLACE) AND FREQUENCY DETECTORS. BOTH TYPE OF SYSTEMS OPERATE AT SOME FREQUENCY RANGES (TOP)

FILTERS ARE BROADLY TUNED

(BOTTOM)


WE CAN SEE SEVERAL STAGES FOM COCHLEA TO

CORTEX

SUPERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS IS THE PLACE

WHERE SPATIAL SOUND

PROCESSING STARTS

MAPPING INTO FREQUENCY

AND SPACE LOCATIONS IS

PRESENT, LIKE IN VISION

IT WAS FOR LOCAL SIGNAL

FEATURES

  • THE STRUCTURE OF HEARING SYSTEM


WE HAVE´SENSITIVITIES FOR DIFFEERENT FREQUENCIES, HIGHEST IS

IN MIDDLE RANGE

MUSIC FROM INSTRUMENTS CAN BE VERY EFFICIENTLY

RECOGINZED. THIS MUST BE BASED ON DETAILED

FREQUENCY AND TIME ANALYSIS


LOCALIZATION OF SOUND SOURCES

IN SPACE IS BASED ON MEASURING

DIFFERENCES IN TIME OF SOUND ARRIVAL

BETWEEN THE EARS. THIS MUST BE VERY

PRECISE MEASUREMENT, ON THE ORDER

OF TENS OF MICROSECONDS

SOUND LOCALIZATION IS QUITE PRECISE

BUT HEAD MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL

CUES HELP A LOT, ERRORS IN LOCATION

CAN BE SEEN IN PICTURES


MUSIC PROCESSING....


CERTAIN TONES HAVE HARMONY, THEY SOUND NICE TO US,

OTHR TONES NOT. WE ARE PROBABLY BORN WITH A SYSTEM

WHICH PROCESSES TONES AND THUS WE ARE PREDISPOSED

FOR CERTAIN SOUNDS WHICH ARE ”NATURAL” FOR US


  • SPEECH PROCESSING SYSTEM

    A COMPLEX ELASTIC MECHANICAL SYSTEM CONTROLLED

    ELECTRICALLY FOR REGULATION OF AIRFLOW


  • BASIC UNITS OF SPEECH –PHONEMS

    USING THESE UNITS SPEECH CAN BE GENERATED

HEARING AND SPEECH ARE PRECISLY MATCHED TO EACH OTHER

SPEECH CAN BE RECOGNIZED EVEN AT HIGH LEVEL OF NOISE

AND INTERFERENCE (COCTAIL PARTY EFFECT, MANY PEOPLE ARE

TALKING AT THE SMAE TIME BUT WE ARE ABLE TO CONCENTRATE

ON ONE SPEAKER.


  • VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

    NOTE THAT THE WORLD WE SEE IS STABLE, WHILE

    PICTURES ON RETINAS OF EYES ARE NOT. MOVEMENTS

    ARE COMPENSATED BY SIGNALS FROM VESTIBULAR

    SYSTEM (ORIENTATION IN SPACE)

EXAMPLE: WHEN PERSON IS ROTATING ON A PLATFORM IN

DARK ROOM, HORIZONTAL LINE WILL BE DEFLECTED


  • TOUCH SYSTEM

    IT HAS RECEPTORS IN THE BODY.

    IN THE BRAIN THERE IS MAPPING OF

    THE BODY IN THE CORTEX


  • MAPPING OF BODY PARTS IN THE

    SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX


  • SKIN RECEPTORS OF TOUCH

    (CAPSULES AT THE NERVE ENDINGS)


  • TOUCH SENSITIVITY THRESHOLD FOR

    FEMALES OVER THE BODY


  • TOUCH SENSITIVITY THRESHOLD FOR

    MALES


FEMALES ARE MORE SENSITIVE!!!


WHAT IS PAIN?

IT IS SIGNALLING FROM THE

BODY TO THE BRAIN ABOUT

IMPROPER OPERATION

THE BRAIN CHANGES ITS ACTION

TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM

THERE IS ALSO A SYSTEM FOR

IHIBITING THE PAIN SIGNALS

  • PAIN SYSTEM


IT IS ACTIVATION OF TOUCH

AND PAIN SYSTEM IN ORDER

TO STIMULATE OTHER

BRAIN STRUCTURES

PERHAPS IMMUNE SYSTEM IS

STIMULATED???

  • ACUPUNCTURE


INTEGRATION OF SENSESIN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

WE COULD CALL IT

”BIOLOGICAL MULTIMEDIA”

but this is ONLY A JOKE!


  • PEOPLE HAVE FANTASTIC CAPABILITIES IN RECEIVING AND PRODUCING INFORMATION BY DIFFERENT SENSES AND SYSTEMS

    FOR EXAMPLE THEY CAN SPEAK,

    LISTEN AND DANCE AT THE SAME TIME

    HOW SUCH THINGS ARE CONTROLLED

    AND ORGANIZED IN THE BRAIN?

LET’S SEE FIRST SOME OF THE BRAIN CAPABILITIES

(SOME OF THEM QUITE FUNNY TOO)


CROSSMODAL MATCHING

HERE THE PERSON MUST RECOGNIZE OBJECT VISUALLY,

RECOGNIZE OBJECT TACTILLY, COMPARE THEM AND MATCH

HOW THIS IS DONE? PROBABLY INFORMATION FROM DIFFERENT

SENSES IS STORED IN SOME GENERAL WAY, INEPENDENT FROM

PARTICULAR SENSE


SOME PEOPLE HAVE PECULIAR

EXPERIENCE: THEY FEEL E.G. SPECIFIC

SHAPE WHEN FEEL SPECIFIC TASTE

THIS IS CALLED SYNESTHESIA, ONE CAN SPECULATE THAT

SENSORY SIGNALS GET MIXED UP SOMWHERE


  • VENTRILOQUISM - BY COORDINATING

    MOVEMENTS OF A PUPPET WITH SPEECH,

    VENTIRLOQUIST INDUCES STRONG ILLUSION

    THAT THE PUPPET IS SPEAKING


  • HOW THE COORDINATION IS DONE?

DEEP IN THE BRAIN THERE IS A STRUCTURE CALLED

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS


  • IN THIS STRUCTURE THERE ARE

    NEURONS REACTING TO DIFFERENT

    SENSORY INFORMATION:

    THEY ARE MULTIMODAL


  • STIMULATION OF DIFFERENT SENSORY AREAS OF CORTEX WILL PRODUCE

    RESPONSE FROM Superior Colliculus NEURONS:


  • THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF

    MULTIMODAL NEURONS: SOME RESPOND TO 2 DIFFERENT SENSES

    AND SOME TO 3


  • THESE NEURONS HAVE CONNECTIONS

    FROM LAYERS OF SINGLE SENSORY

    NEURONS


  • HERE WE SEE LAYER OF VISUAL

    NEURONS FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS

    THEY FORM A MAP OF VISUAL SPACE


  • HERE WE SEE LAYER OF AUDITORY

    NEURONS

    THEY FORM A MAP OF AUDITORY SPACE


  • THE DIFFERENT MAPS

    ARE OVERLAID ON

    EACH OTHER SO THEY

    MATCH!


  • THESE NEURONS RESPOND TO

    OVERLAPPING AREAS FROM DIFFERENT SENSORY MAPS. THEY HAVE

    BROAD RESPONSE


RESPONSE PATTERNS FOR DIFFERENT

BODY AREAS


  • CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENTS

    EAR POSITIONS


  • REACTION OF VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL

    NEURON. REPONSE IS GREATLY

    ENHANCED FOR SIMULTANEOUS

    VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL STIMULATION

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!


  • RESPONSE OF VISUAL-TOUCH

    NEURON. RESPONSE IS ENHANCED

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!


  • TOUCH-VISUAL NEURON.

    RESPONSE ENHANCED

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!


  • TRIMODAL NEURON- SENSITIVE TO 3

    SENSES. RESPONSE TO TWO SENSES

    AT A TIME


  • DEPRESSION OF RESPONSE WHEN

    SIGNALS ARE NOT OPTIMALLY

    SYNCHRONIZED


RESPONSE

DEPRESSED

RESPONSE INCREASED

  • RECEPTIVE FIELD OF NEURON

STRONGEST MULTISENSORY

RESPONSE


  • HOW RESPONSE DEPENDS ON THE POINT OF

    STIMULATION

WE CAN SEE

STRONG DEPRESSION

AND

ENHANCEMENT


  • RESPONSE FOR VISUAL-TOUCH

    NEURON


  • RESPONSE FOR TOUCH-ACOUSTICAL

    NEURON


  • VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL RESPONSE IN

    RELATION TO POSITION OF EARS


  • WHAT HAPPENS IF STIMULATIONS ARE NOT SYNCHRONIZED?

ACOUSTICAL SIGNAL IS EARLIER

THAN TOUCH BY 400, 200, ... MS


  • TOUCH SIGNAL IS EARLIER


  • ACOUSTICAL SIGNAL IS EARLIER

    THAN VISUAL, VERY STRONG PEAK

    RESPONSE BETWEEN 50 AND 0 MS


  • STIMULATION NOT OPTIMAL IN

    SPACE


  • STIMULATION MUST BE SYNCHRONIZED

    IN TIME AND IN SPATIAL POSITION

    TO PROVIDE MAXIMUM RESPONSE


  • WHY ALL THIS IS DONE? BECAUSE

    MUTISENSORY SIGNALS PROVIDE

    MORE AND MORE PRECISE INFORMATION


THE DELAY OF 50 MS FOR OPTIMAL AUDIO

VISUAL RESPONSE MIGHT BE COMING BECAUSE

OF THE DEALAY IN SOUND PROPAGATION

IN 50 MS SOUND MAKES

ABOUT 20 M WHICH

IS RANGE OF OPERATION


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