eukaryotic gene control
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Eukaryotic Gene control. No OPERONS!!!!. Some Key Points…. Gene control in eukaryotes is important for development into a multicellular organism Changing environmental conditions not as important (why?) Eukaryotes show gene control at all levels, and all seem to be equally important.

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Presentation Transcript
some key points
Some Key Points…..
  • Gene control in eukaryotes is important for development into a multicellular organism
  • Changing environmental conditions not as important (why?)
  • Eukaryotes show gene control at all levels, and all seem to be equally important
eukaryotic genome structure
Eukaryotic Genome Structure
  • Linear DNA, folded into several chromosomes (approx. 200,000,000 bps)
    • Histone proteins (tails)
  • 97% of DNA DOES NOT code for proteins
    • Tandemly repetitive (satellite) DNA
      • Telomeres & centromeres
genome structure cont
Genome Structure cont…..
  • Multi gene families
    • Genes that code for proteins w/ similar functions
    • May not all be near each other
    • May be controlled by the same regulatory elements
  • Gene amplification
    • Multiple copies of a gene
    • Temporary?
  • Selective gene loss
    • Insect metamorphosis
  • Gene rearrangements
    • B cell antibodies
    • T cell antigen receptors
transcriptional control
Transcriptional control

Chromatin Structure

  • DNA folding/unfolding
    • Heterochromatin(inactive)
    • Euchromatin (active)
transcriptional control1
Transcriptional control
  • Histone modification
    • Attachment of acetyl groups (COCH3) to histone tails loosens their hold(active)
    • Methylation of tails(inactive)
transcriptional control cont
Transcriptional Control cont….
  • DNA methylation of specific bases(inhibitory)
    • Usually long term
    • Methylases
    • Demethylases?
    • X-inactivation
    • Development
      • Patterns passed on to daughter cells
even more transcriptional control
Even more transcriptional control…..
  • enhancers
    • Sequences of bases
    • Same sequences used over & over
    • Distal vs proximal
      • One enhancer sequence may affect several related genes
  • Silencer sequences
slide10
Cont…
  • Transcription factors (PROTEINS)
    • Activators vs repressors
    • Bind to enhancers
    • 100s
    • Gene Expression/specialization may be due to unique combo of available transcription factors
post transcriptional control
Post-transcriptional control
  • mRNA editing
    • Alternative splicing
  • Transport (or not) to cytoplasm
    • 5’ cap
  • mRNA degradation-life span of mRNA
    • Poly A tail impt.
    • RNAi ? (Dicer)

DICER

plus all the stuff that prokaryotes do
Plus, all the stuff that prokaryotes do!!!
  • Translational control
    • Initiation complex
  • Post translational control
    • Protein modification
    • Protein degradation
    • Protein targeting
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