Enlightenment
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Enlightenment-. Objectives. 1. List 2 ideas of the enlightenment. 2. What examples of self-rule and democracy existed in the English colonies in North America prior to the American Revolution?. Enlightenment-.

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Enlightenment-

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Enlightenment-


Objectives

  • 1. List 2 ideas of the enlightenment.

  • 2. What examples of self-rule and democracy existed in the English colonies in North America prior to the American Revolution?


Enlightenment-

  • 1600’s people began to think that the world should be ruled by reason and power lied with the people.

  • Result– the over throw of many kings and the beginning of America.


John Locke-

  • 1690 Two Treatises of Gov’t

  • “Life, liberty and property were natural rights.”


Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762

  • The Social Contract

  • “power belongs to the people, and can belong to it alone”


Baron Montesquieu

  • 1748- Spirit of Laws

  • Gov’t should be 3 branches


Natural rights

  • Everyone is entitled to Life, Liberty and Property.


Thomas Jefferson

  • Later steals these ideas and writes the Declaration of independence.


Social Contract Theory

  • The power to rule comes from the people!


Iroquois Confederacy

  • Native American Group in New York State

  • Used a form of participatory democracy and representative democracy


Jamestown 1606


Chesapeake Bay


Initial Difficulties

  • Jamestown

    • Laziness of colonists

    • Did not expect to do manual labor

    • Depended on natives for food

    • Disease and starvation killed 80% of the colonists in the first year

    • Failed attempts to befriend Indians let to multiple skirmishes


High Mortality Rates

  • The “Starving Time”:

    • 1607: 104 colonists

    • By spring, 1608: 38 survived

    • 1609: 300 more immigrants

    • By spring, 1610: 60 survived

    • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants

    • 1624 population: 1,200

    • Adult life expectancy: 40 years

    • Death of children before age 5: 80%


Malaria


Malaria:


John Rolfe

  • First successful cultivator of Tobacco in Virginia


Tobacco Plant

Virginia’s gold and silver. -- John Rolfe, 1612


Early Colonial Tobacco

1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.

1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.

1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco.

1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.


Cash Crop

  • A product grown for profit.


Indentured Servants

  • Having to be someone’s servant in exchange for them paying for transportation across the Atlantic.

  • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!


VirginiaHouse of Burgesses (1619)

  • First assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America


The Settlement

of New England


The Mayflower

  • 1620  a group of 102 Pilgrims lands in Plymouth, Massachusetts


Puritans:

  • Members of the English Church, who thought it was not strict enough.

  • Came to America to ‘purify’ the church and make it better.


The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620


The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620

Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship.

Sets up a direct democracy, where all men would vote and majority would rule.


New England Town Meetings


New England Town Meetings

  •  Any citizen of the town may discuss issues with other members of the community and vote on them.

  • This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the United States today


Fundamental orders of Connecticut 1638

  • The first written Constitution in the Western tradition


Fundamental orders of Connecticut 1638

  • Outlines important individual rights

    • 1. Free men share in electing leaders

    • 2. Secret paper ballots

    • 3. Limits some powers of Government


Albany Plan

The Albany Plan

  • 1754: Albany Congress – Led by Ben Franklin

  • 1st attempt unite the colonies.

  • FAILS


Objectives

  • 1. List 2 ideas of the enlightenment.

  • 2. What examples of self-rule and democracy existed in the English colonies in North America prior to the American Revolution?


Homework

  • Homework—Read Pgs 24-29—Answer ‘In Review’ questions 1, 2,3


1. Salutary Neglect:

  • 1607-1763

  • British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of laws meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain.

  • For example……


18. PROCLAMATION OF 1763

  • Purpose:

  • 1. Establish GB's new North American empire

  • 2. Stabilize relations with Native Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.

  • 3. Forbade colonists of the thirteen colonies from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains.


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