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Chapter 7 Notes:. Parts of the Cell. Cell Factoid of the Day. How long do cells live? White blood cells typically live only 7-8 hours. That’s a short life! Red blood cells; a week. Cell Factoid of the Day. How long do cells live?

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chapter 7 notes

Chapter 7 Notes:

Parts of the Cell

cell factoid of the day
Cell Factoid of the Day

How long do cells live?

  • White blood cells typically live only 7-8 hours. That’s a short life!
  • Red blood cells; a week
cell factoid of the day1
Cell Factoid of the Day

How long do cells live?

  • Live bacteria have been found in Canada that are over 500,000 years old. That’s a looooong life!

Professor Eske Willerslev collecting soil samples in the permafrost in the Yukon, Canada. Researchers found half million year old bacteria in some of the samples collected.

(Credit: Duane Froese, ScienceDaily Aug. 28, 2007)

parts on the outside
Parts on the Outside
  • Cell membrane
  • Cell Wall (not on animal cells)
  • Cilia
  • Flagella
cell membrane
CELL MEMBRANE
  • Boundary between cell and its external environment
  • Analogous to factory doors/windows, etc.

Two layers = lipid bilayer

cell membrane1
CELL MEMBRANE
  • Controls movement of materials (O2, H2O, CO2, nutrients, waste) in and out of cell
cell wall plants
CELL WALL (plants)
  • Surrounds the cell membrane
  • Adds strength and support to cell
  • Analogous to factory walls, fence?

http://www.aber.ac.uk/gwydd-cym/graffeg/biolgell/cludiant/collenchyma.jpg

cilia
CILIA
  • Short hairs on outside of the cell
  • Provide movement
  • Analogous?? Move the factory

Lung Cilia

Image: Richard Superfine

flagella
FLAGELLA
  • Long, whip-like tail on the outside of a cell
  • Moves the cell; Provides movement
parts on the inside
Parts on the Inside

Cytoplasm, which contains…

  • Nucleus (nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin)
  • ER, Golgi Apparatus, Ribosomes
  • Vacuoles, Lysosomes
  • Chloroplasts, Mitochondria
  • Cytoskeleton
cytoplasm
CYTOPLASM
  • Portion of the cell outside of the nucleus
  • Jelly-like material suspends the other organelles
  • Analogous to factory air/open space
nucleus
NUCLEUS
  • Control center for eukaryotic cells
  • Contains chromosomes
  • Analogous to factory manager/boss office?

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/

cell factoid of the day2
Cell Factoid of the Day

Not all eukaryotic cells have one nucleus…

  • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) discard their nuclei at maturity, which makes them better at carrying oxygen to body tissues.
cell factoid of the day3
Cell Factoid of the Day

Not all eukaryotic cells have one nucleus…

  • Skeletal muscle cells and plasmodial slime molds have many nuclei within a single cell membrane.
chromatin

Condensed Chromosome

CHROMATIN
  • DNA wrapped around proteins
  • Makes up chromosomes: instructions to run cell.
  • Analogous to factory operating manual

Uncondensed Chromosome

nuclear envelope
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
  • Boundary between nucleus and cytoplasm
  • Contains pores (holes) for materials to pass in/out
  • Analogous to factory managers office?

http://acs.lbl.gov/ImgLib/

http://elliottcelltour.com/files/QuickSiteImages/Nucleus.jpg

cell factoid of the day4
Cell Factoid of the Day:
  • Humans have about 50 trillion cells in their bodies!
  • Blue whales have 80-100 quadrillion cells in their bodies.

= 50,000,000,000,000

= 100,000,000,000,000,000!

nucleolus
NUCLEOLUS
  • Produces the RNA that makes up ribosomes
  • Analogous to factory: instructions to build factory robots or assembly line tools

Photos by Mr. Stephens

ribosomes

http://pbs.org

RIBOSOMES
  • Site where proteins are made (protein synthesis)
  • In cytoplasm or on rough ER
  • Analogous to assembly line robots which build what the factory makes
endoplasmic reticulum er
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
  • Folded membrane, which connects nucleus to cell membrane
  • Site for assembly and transport of proteins
  • Analogous to factory conveyor belts?
endoplasmic reticulum er1
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
  • ROUGH ER; w/ ribosomes
  • SMOOTH ER; no ribosomes; special tasks
golgi apparatus
GOLGI APPARATUS
  • Packages and ships proteins out of or inside the cell
  • Shipping dept?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/

https://www.msu.edu/~lupalisa/

lysosomes
LYSOSOMES
  • Membrane-bound sac with digestive enzymes inside
  • Digests: worn-out organelles, food, bacteria/viruses;clean up messes/ recycle
  • Analogous: Clean up crew

http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/dynhist/

vacuoles
VACUOLES
  • Storage sac for: food, enzymes, water, wastes, etc…
  • Analogous to factory inventory room?

http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/jose.deondarza/

http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/

mitochondria
MITOCHONDRIA
  • Produces energy for the cell
  • Breaks sugars (glucose) down for energy (ATP)
  • Analogous to factory power plant?

http://porpax.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/makeatp/makeatp.htm

chloroplasts plants
CHLOROPLASTS (plants)
  • Performs photosynthesis
  • Converts energy from light to create sugars and starches; food for plant.
  • Analogous to factory break room?
chloroplasts plants1
CHLOROPLASTS (plants)
  • Green because of pigment called “chlorophyll”
slide29

Photosynthetic Sea slugs

http://www.seaslugforum.net/

microtubules
MICROTUBULES
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Provides support for organelles and maintain cell shape; used in cell division
  • Analogous to factory internal walls?

http://elliottcelltour.com/

microfilaments
MICROFILAMENTS
  • Make up part of Cytoskeleton
  • Provides internal support for cell

http://elliottcelltour.com/

http://tools.invitrogen.com/

centrioles
CENTRIOLES
  • Cytoskeleton (made of microtubules)
  • Coordinate cell division (absent in most plant cells)
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