The arctic tundra
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The Arctic Tundra. By: Natalie Jiménez Period1 9/10/2011 AP Environmental Biome Project Mrs. Yeutter. Temperature. Highs: are always reached during the summer. It ranges from 37 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. For the most part, however, the temperature is usually under 50 degrees.

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The Arctic Tundra

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The arctic tundra

The Arctic Tundra

By: Natalie Jiménez

Period1

9/10/2011

AP Environmental Biome Project

Mrs. Yeutter


Temperature

Temperature

  • Highs: are always reached during the summer. It ranges from 37 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. For the most part, however, the temperature is usually under 50 degrees.

  • Lows: are always reached in the winter time. The average is -20 to -30 degrees Fahrenheit. The northernmost areas of the tundra, have been known to reach temperatures as low as -90 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • Average: 10-20 degrees Fahrenheit


Precipitation

Precipitation

  • Precipitation is desert-like because it receives little rain.

  • Average: about 6-10 inches (15-25 centimeters) of rain AND snow per year.

  • Most of the rain is received during the summer months.

    • The growing season is all through the summer, which only last about 50-60 days.


The tundra is located

The tundra is located…..

  • At 55 to 70 north degrees latitude.

  • Mostly in the Arctic circle.


Another map

Another Map


Where is the tundra found

Where is the tundra found?

  • Covers about 20% of the Earth’s land surface

    • North America (Alaska, Canada, Iceland, and other northern countries), Russia, and parts of Northern Europe.

  • Located mainly in the Northern Hemisphere, though there are a few tundra-like landscapes in the South Pole

  • For the most part, the tundra is a flat, expanse of land yet there are a few mountain ranges.


The tundra on the world map

The tundra on the world map


Soil conditions

Soil Conditions….

  • Are not ideal

    • soil is low in nutrients and minerals, except in the rare areas where animal droppings are abundant.

  • The tundra’s topsoil, called permafrost, is made up of permanently frozen soil, fine gravel, and dead plant material.

    • it can extend 450 meters (1478 feet) below the surface


Soil conditions cont d

Soil Conditions (cont’d)

  • Northern areas of the tundra remain frozen year.

    • but some of the southern region’s permafrost melts a little during the summertime.

      • creates bogs that teem with life because of the warmer conditions and melted ice


Climate

Climate

  • Prevailing weather conditions of the tundra consist of COLD temperatures and bitter winds that can reach up to 40 mph.

  • Winter time brings total darkness for days at a time, the sun rarely shines

    • During this season, temperatures can reach

      -90 degrees Fahrenheit.


Climate cont d

Climate (cont’d)

  • Summer in the tundra is only about 6-9 weeks long.

    • temperatures can reach 45 degrees Fahrenheit

    • sun rarely sets; it is shining for 24 hours a day during the summertime

      • This phenomenon caused the tundra to be called “land of the midnight sun”


Types of plants and special adaptations

The tundra has the lowest biodiversity of all the biomes

only has about 1700 different types of plants

Characteristics:

root systems of the tundra plants aren’t very deep; they are shallow and extensive to maximize the absorption of the little water it receives.

Types of plants and special adaptations


Plants cont d

must be adapted to high wind speeds, or else they will be pulled up

tundra plants have are short height and they are often grouped together, or grow into mats to help stand against the wind

must be accustomed to the short growing seasons, low light intensity, and freezing temperatures.

Types of plants

mosses, lichens, grasses, and shrubs, all of which are adapted to the environment

Plants (cont’d)


The types of animals their physical behavioral adaptations

The tundra has the lowest biodiversity of all the biomes

Only has about 48 different species of land animals

Behavioral Adaptations

many animals must quickly breed raise their offspring in the summer to take advantage of the warmer temperatures and increased food supply

The types of animals their physical/ behavioral adaptations


Animals cont d

Physical Adaptations

Animals have are thick fur or extra fat for better heat retention/absorption

Others hibernate in the winter because of the lack of food

Some animals (like birds and caribou) migrate to other regions to escape the cold winter temperatures.

Animals (cont’d)


Endangered plant species

Endangered Plant Species

  • The tundra has a relatively short list of endangered or threatened species due to little human impact (possibly from the extreme temperature) and geographic isolation.

    • Some include the Aleutian Shield Fern, the Aleutian Wormwood, the Sessile-Leaved Scurvy-Grass, and the Bering Sea Douglasia


Endangered plant species cont d

Aleutian Shield Fern

only plant species that is considered to be critically endangered

no clear reasons for its increasing rate of disappearance

so it is believed that its rarity is due to natural processes

Potential threats

overgrazing and trampling

Endangered Plant Species (cont’d)


Endangered plant species cont d1

Endangered Plant Species (cont’d)

  • Bering Sea Douglasia

    • It is also uncertain why the plant species is on the decline.

      • though it seems that biological factors are also to blame

      • couldn’t find any pictures of it


Endangered animal species

Endangered Animal Species

  • Arctic Fox populations are relatively safe in North America,but there is a species of Russian Arctic Fox that is dwindling.

  • Potential reasons for population decline

    • infestation of mange, a parasite spread by nearby domesticated dogs.

    • global warming that is increasing the average temperature of the tundra.

      • increase in temperature is making the area more hospitable for the red fox, a bigger species that is invading the Russian Arctic Fox


Endangered animal species cont d

A second endangered species are the caribou.

Their habitats and migratory routes are being destroyed by road building, oil pipelines, mining, and loss of food sources.

Endangered Animal Species (cont’d)


Interesting facts

Interesting Facts

  • The origin of the word “tundra” comes from the Finnish word “tunturia” which means “barren land ” or “treeless plain”

  • The sweeping, bitter winds of the tundra are being harnessed for wind power.


Interesting fact cont d

Interesting Fact (cont’d)

  • The sweeping, bitter winds of the tundra are being harnessed for wind power.

    • The small coastal town of Kotzebue is the first Alaskan town to use arctic wind power.

    • The wind powers about 200 homes, 6% of the population

    • It is designed to withstand the strong winds and extreme temperatures.

    • Its success in lowering emissions and electric bill costs have motivated the community to extend its use.


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • Webites used:

    • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html

    • http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm

    • http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/tundra-threats.html

    • http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/tundra4/tundra4c.html

    • http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra_climate_page.htm

    • http://www.aidea.org/aea/Reports%20and%20Presentations/Wind-Turbine-Provides_Electricity-for-Arctic-Town_CADDET-Kotzebue-Article.pdf

    •  http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/index1.html

    • http://www.ehow.com/list_7497509_endangered-plants-tundra.html

    • http://www.animalport.com/endangered-animals/tundra.html


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