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luther leads the reformation

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Part 6

Luther Leads the reformation

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The Roman Catholic Church dominated Northern and Western Europe. However, the Church did not receive universal approval . Church = wealth and power

Luther Leads the reformation

The Church:

* Patronized the arts

* Spend extravagantly on personal pleasure

* Pope Alexander VI admitted he had fathered several children

Luther Leads the reformation

* Many priests and monks were poorly educated (could not read or teach others)

* Priests began to marry, gamble, and drink

Luther Leads the reformation

Martin Luther stood ground against friar Johann Tetzel for selling indulgences (pardons) to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral.

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Martin Luther wrote 95 theses (formal statements) attacking the “pardon merchants”, and posted them on the door of the castle. However, someone made copies starting the Reformation.

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Martin Luther’s Teachings:

People could win salvation only through God’s gift of forgiveness.

All church teachings should be clearly based on the Bible.

All people are equal (did not need priests to forgive).

The church is a false authority…only the Bible is the true authority.

Luther Leads the reformation

Martin Luther’s ideas spread rapidly and this group of people became known as the Lutherans, later known as Protestants (protest).

Luther Leads the reformation

The Problem:

Some people took Luther’s ideas to extremes. Many peasants started raiding and burning monasteries.

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Luther wrote the prince and asked no mercy be shown toward these law breakers. Many felt betrayed by Luther and started to reject Luther’s religion.

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The Pope sent Luther a letter stating if he did not take back his words, the Pope would excommunicate (remove from church with no forgiveness). Martin Luther held strong and was excommunicated.

Luther Leads the reformation

King Charles V issued an imperial order that Luther was an outlaw and he was not to receive food or shelter from anyone in the kingdom.

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A prince ignored the order (for selfish reasons) and gave Luther shelter for a year, where Luther translated the New Testament into German. This caused Charles V to go to war against Protestants.

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Charles V defeated the Protestants, but did not force them back to the Catholic Church. Instead, Charles V agrees that each prince would decide the religion of his state. This was known as the Peace of Augsburg.

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Henry VIII (a devout Catholic) became King, with his Queen, Catherine of Aragon, had a daughter, Mary. The King wanted a son to pass the crown.

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King Henry VIII tried to divorce Catherine in order to marry again to have a son. The Pope refused the divorce or annulment. The King called Parliament to make new laws that took away power of the Pope (Parliament approved the divorce).

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Henry VIII married Queen Anne, who gave birth to Elizabeth. Henry charged her with treason and had her beheaded. He married Queen Jane, who gave birth to his son, Edward.

Luther Leads the reformation

After Henry VIII death, Edward took the thrown at the age of 9. At the age of 15, he died of an illness. Who would take the thrown?

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The first born, Mary, became the first Queen of England. She was a Catholic that returned power to the Pope, and executed Protestants. She became known as “Bloody Mary”.

Luther Leads the reformation

After only 5 years, Queen Mary died of stomach cancer. The second born, Elizabeth, would become the new Queen of England.

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Queen Elizabeth set up the first ever Church of England, the Anglican Church, that supported both Catholic and Protestant worship. She anointed herself as the head of the church.

Luther Leads the reformation