Introduction to secondary transition
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Introduction to Secondary Transition. An overview of the variables affecting transition services and planning options for individuals with disabilities. A Note About Language.

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Introduction to secondary transition

Introduction to Secondary Transition

An overview of the variables affecting transition services and planning options for individuals with disabilities

A note about language

A Note About Language

Keeping in mind that individuals with disabilities are first and foremost individuals, I ask all of you to use person first language (i.e., “a person with a disability” as opposed to “an LD student”. Specific attention will be given to this point during the assessment of all written assignments.

Background information

Background Information

  • We will not discuss slides 4 – 46 in class unless you have specific questions. They are meant to provide an overview of the essential special education knowledge necessary for you to take an active role in this course.

Major tenants of idea

Major Tenants of IDEA

  • Applies to children ages 3 - 21

  • Zero reject - nonexclusionary education

  • FAPE - Free appropriate public education

  • LRE - Least restrictive environment

  • Nondiscriminatory evaluation

  • Due process

  • Transition planning

  • AYP - Adequate yearly progress

  • Advocacy

  • Confidentiality

  • Noncompliance - lawsuits

  • Person first language

Major tenants of section 504

Major Tenants of Section 504

  • Prevents discrimination by any organization receiving federal funds

  • Defines a handicapped person as “Any person who has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities”

  • Students served under IDEA are also eligible for 504

  • Both laws mandate FAPE

  • IDEA requires an individual education program (IEP) while 504 requires schools to demonstrate how services are being provided

Major tenants of ada 1990

Major Tenants of ADA (1990)

  • Maximize the employment potential of individuals with disabilities.

  • Provide “reasonable accommodations” in the workplace.

  • Employers may not ask if an individual has a disability and may not discriminate against persons who have a disability.

  • Colleges and universities must provide appropriate modifications

  • Telecommunications must be accessible to individuals who are deaf

Brief history of idea

Brief history of IDEA

  • Public Law 94-142, Education For All Handicapped Children Act (1975).

  • This law was reauthorized and expanded as the “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act” (IDEA) in 1990.

  • Reauthorized again in 1997 & 2004

    (P.L. 108-446).

  • Federal regulations for 2004 reauthorization were released August 14, 2006.

  • WA regulations released in July 2007.

Who is eligible for services under idea

Who is eligible for services under IDEA?

Students who demonstrate the characteristics of any of the previous categories IF their disability adversely impacts educational performanceand requires specialized instruction.

What if the disability does not affect academic achievement

What if the disability does not affect academic achievement?

  • Students are NOT eligible for services under IDEA

  • They may receive services under Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act (1973)

  • Section 504 covers many more students than IDEA

Introduction to secondary transition

Students served under Section 504

Students served under IDEA

Visual representation of school-aged populations

served under IDEA and Section 504

Introduction to secondary transition

Student Need

Not Eligible

Related Services

Consider IDEA

Adverse affect on educational performance?

IDEA Eligible

Consider 504

IEP Developed

Not Eligible

Disability substantially limits one or more major life activities

504 Protected

Reasonable Accommodations


Placement Options




Disability categories in washington

Developmentally Delayed (age 3 - 8)

Emotional Behavioral Disability

Speech or language impairment

Orthopedically impairment

Other Health impaired

Specific learning disability

Mental retardation

Multiple disabilities

Hearing impairment / Deafness

Visually impairment / blindness

Deaf / blindness


Traumatic brain injury

Disability Categories in Washington

Categorical disability distribution

Categorical Disability Distribution

U.S. Department of Education 2005

Nondiscriminatory evaluation

Nondiscriminatory Evaluation

All Students



Some Students



Evaluation Procedures

Students in need of special

education and related services

Idea procedures

IDEA Procedures

  • Pre-referral - consultation with instructional support team (IST)

  • Document current levels of student performance (academic, social, & behavioral)

  • Implement academic supports - document results

  • Referral (identification)

  • Notice of procedural safeguards & due process rights

  • Parental consent

  • Evaluation

  • Eligibility determination (within 35 school days of parental consent)

  • IEP development

  • Placement decision (LRE)

  • Annual review

  • Triennial reevaluation

  • Transition planning

Evaluation procedures

Evaluation Procedures

  • Review existing data on the student including classroom-based, local, state assessments, and classroom observations.

  • Use a variety of assessment tools and strategies to gather relevant functional, developmental, and academic information about the student.

  • Provide assessments in the student’s native language.

Iep development who s involved

IEP Development - Who’s involved?

  • The student (when appropriate)

  • Local educational agency (LEA) - who will oversee implementation of the child’s plan

  • General classroom teachers (at least 1)

  • Special education teacher

  • Therapist

  • Parents

  • Others at the discretion of the parents or LEA

  • Evaluator if other than the special education teacher

Contents of the iep

Contents of the IEP

  • Child’s present levels of performance (e.g., educational, social, behavioral)

  • Specific measurable annual goals, objectives, expected levels of performance, timelines

  • Information regarding the students placement and related services

  • Modifications to the general education curriculum

  • Dates & times for delivery of services

  • Means to assess AYP

  • Transition plan (16 and up)

Continuum of sped services lre

General Education (Gen Ed) Curriculum

Gen Ed w/ consultative services

Gen Ed & instruction & services

Gen Ed & resource room

Full time Sped classroom

Special school

Special facilities, day or residential

Most intensive

Continuum of Sped Services - LRE

Most Inclusive

Help general education teachers help you

Help general education teachers help you!

What should they do when a student is struggling in class?

  • Start a confidential file on a secure computer.

  • Describe the student in a one paragraph narrative that concludes w/ your concerns.

  • Identify the student’s current levels of functional performance in each of the following domains: academic, social, emotional/behavioral - one paragraph overview from IST pre-referral.

  • Begin to create a database so that you can chart the student’s progress over time.

  • Identify and implement research-based instructional strategies.

  • Build a relationship with the parents.

Academic areas of focus

Listening comprehension

Oral expression

Basic reading skills (alphabetic principle, decoding, phonemic awareness, fluency, semantics)

Reading comprehension

Basic writing skills (handwriting, spelling, grammar)

Written expression

Math computation

Math reasoning

Problem solving

Academic areas of focus

Listening comprehension

Listening Comprehension

Sara is able to sustain her attention during group activities for 15 - 20 minutes. She follows three-step oral directions and is able to recall at least five story elements from orally read texts. She asks clarifying questions, provides feedback pertinent to the listening activity (e.g., I’ve seen my dog chase cats too!), and responds to verbal cues. Sara is meeting GLEs for listening comprehension and is a joy to have in class.

Sample Documentation

Oral expression

Oral Expression

  • Sara adjusts her language based on the situation (e.g., when speaking with friends vs. adults). She initiates discussions and participates in group activities (e.g., brainstorming). She is able to articulate supporting details and organize information into logical sequences. She speaks clearly and distinctly using developmentally appropriate grammar, syntax, tone, and inflection.

Sample Documentation

Basic reading skills

Basic Reading Skills

  • While Sara possesses strong listening comprehension and oral expression skills, she struggles with basic reading skills. For example, during a Pre-Primer Subject Word List screening using the Qualitative Reading Inventory- 4, Sara scored in the 60th percentile or frustration level. She was unable to automatically identify the words “children”, “other”, “animal”, “place”, “every”, “thing”, “write”, and “live”. Sara is often unable to read words containing complex letter patterns (e.g., -ought, -aught). She has difficulty decoding multi-syllabic words (i.e., two and three syllable). When prompted she is able to use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words 50% of the time.

Sample Documentation

Using data to inform instruction

Using data to inform instruction

Sara’s Reading Performance


Introduction to secondary transition

Results of FBA











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Jimboユs Daily Schedule:





Arrive at school













Language Arts with Ms



9:00 -



Social Studies





Gym or Cu


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Specials (Music, Art)





Study Hall





Technology, Dram





Scientifically based research

Scientifically-based Research

  • Involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to educational activities.

  • Employs systematic empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment.

  • Includes rigorous data analysis.

  • Is evaluated using experimental or quasi-experimental designs

  • Has been accepted by a peer reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts.

Specific learning disabilities

Specific Learning Disabilities

Section IV

Defining sld

Defining SLD

  • The definition of SLD is changing (IDEA 2004)

  • Sometimes called the “invisible disability”

  • Unexpected difficulty / low performance

  • Inefficient processing in the area of disability

  • “… a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical computations.”

Early warning signs of sld

Early Warning Signs of SLD

The following behaviors may indicate that a child has a specific learning disability:

  • Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds

  • Difficulty "sounding out" unknown words

  • Repeatedly misidentifying known words

  • Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and substitutions (house/home)

  • Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs (+, -, x, /, =)

  • Difficulty understanding or remembering what is read because so much time and effort is spent figuring each word

Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (1999). How children learn to read.

Retrieved September 2, 2006 from

Not sld if


The deficit is primarily the result of:

  • Hearing, visual, or motor disability

  • MR (mental retardation)

  • SBD (serious behavioral disorder)

  • Environmental, cultural, economic disadvantage


Sld determination

SLD Determination

  • School districts have two means to determine if a student qualifies as having a learning disability:

    • Severe discrepancy model (Classic)

    • Response to Intervention (IDEA 2004)

Introduction to secondary transition

Lyon, R. G., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Torgesson, J. K., Wood, F. B., et al. (2001). Rethinking learning disabilities. In C. E. Finn, A. J. Rotherham, & C. R. Hokanson (Eds.), Rethinking special education for a new century (p. 270).

Introduction to secondary transition

Mental Retardation

MR IQ cut points: 50 - 70 = mild

35 - 50 = moderate

20 - 35 = severe

Below 20 = profound

Response to intervention rti

Response to Intervention (RTI)

  • IDEA 2004 regulations state:

    “The criteria adopted by the State [to determine the child’s eligibility as SLD] must permit the use of a process based on the child’s response to scientific, research-based intervention” Section 300.307 (a) (2)

Defining rti

Defining RTI

“…an assessment and intervention process for systematically monitoring student progress and making decisions about the need for instructional modifications or increasingly intensified services using progress monitoring data.”

The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD, 2006)

Seven core principles of rti

Seven Core Principles of RTI

  • Use all available resources to teach students

  • Use scientific, research-based instruction

  • Monitor classroom performance

  • Conduct universal screening / benchmarking

  • Use a multi-tier model of service delivery

  • Make data-based decisions

  • Monitor progress frequently

Three tier model of school supports

Three-Tier Model of School Supports



Intensive Interventions

Intensive Interventions

Individual students

Targeted assessment-based

Progress monitoring 1x per week

Individual students

Targeted assessment-based

Progress monitoring 1x per week

Strategic Interventions

Strategic Interventions

Some at-risk students

High efficiency

Progress monitoring 2x per month

Some at-risk students

High efficiency

Progress monitoring 2x per month

Core Interventions

Core Interventions

All students

Preventative / proactive

Students benchmarked 3x per year

on core academic skills

All students

Preventative / proactive

Students benchmarked 3x per year

on social/behavior skills

Key terms

Key Terms

  • Fidelity - the extent to which the instruction is implemented as planned.

  • Universal screening (Tier I) - benchmarking of academic, social skills, and behavior (fall, winter, & spring).

  • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) - a means to measure student development over time.



  • Strategic interventions (Tier II)

    • Short-term (9 - 12 weeks) interventions provided to small groups of students (3 - 6) where remedial instruction occurs in a core academic, social skills, or behavioral area (e.g., phonemic awareness).

    • Three to four sessions per week

    • 30 - 60 min. per session.

    • Progress monitoring biweekly (minimum)

  • Intensive interventions (Tier III) -

    • Small group (3 or less) or individual instruction

    • May be for 12 weeks or more

    • Up to two 30 min sessions daily

    • Weekly progress monitoring (minimum)

Rti is a problem solving process

RTI is a Problem Solving Process

  • RTI is a flexible service delivery model

  • Define the problem

  • Analyze the cause - this requires a conceptual shift from the problem occurring in the student to a need for improvement educational environment “What can we as educators do differently?”

  • Develop a plan

  • Implement the plan

  • Evaluate the plan



Section 1

Mainstreaming vs inclusion


Conceptually similar to mainstreaming but… represents a paradigm shift where students have an inherent right to be in the general education classroom without demands to “keep up” in order to remain there.


Selective placement of students in one or more general education classrooms

Based on the assumption that students have earned the opportunity to “keep up” with other students.

Mainstreaming vs. Inclusion

Rogers, 1993

Note: Full inclusion is > 80% of the school day in a general education setting

Inclusion readiness

Inclusion Readiness

  • Effective inclusion requires comprehensive collaborative efforts that involve system-wide planning, implementation, and ongoing evaluation (McGregor & Vogelsberg, 1998)

  • Common understanding of purpose and need

  • Incentives

  • Administrative support

  • Leadership

  • Resources

Triangle of supports fisher 2000

Triangle of Supports(Fisher, 2000)

Personal Supports

Curriculum accommodations & modifications - UDL

Assistive and instructive technology

Transition defined

Transition Defined

  • Transition - A change in status from behaving primarily as a student to assuming emergent adult roles in a community(deFur, Todd-Allen, & Getzel, 2001)

  • Effective transition begins at the elementary and middle school with students assuming a maximum responsibility for developing the plan (Wehman, 2006)

National longitudinal transition study nlts 2 2005

National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS-2, 2005)

  • High school completion rates up 17%, with 70% completing high school

  • Increase in postsecondary education enrollment from 15% to 37%

  • Lower full time employment rates (39% vs. 57%)

  • 90% remain single

  • 75% live with parents

  • > 50% had been subject to disciplinary action at school, fired from a job, or arrested compared to 33% in 1987.

  • Approximately 70% were employed at some level (Benz, Lindstrom, & Yovanoff, 2000)

Transition services idea

Transition Services - IDEA

  • Must be based on student needs, taking into account their preferences and interests

  • Be results oriented

  • Focus on improving the academic and functional achievement of a student with a disability

  • Facilitate the movement from school to postschool activities

Iep requirements under idea 2004

IEP requirements under IDEA 2004

At age 16 the IEP must include:

  • Appropriate measurable goals based upon age appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and where appropriate independent living skills;

  • The transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist the child in reaching these goals.

    The goals in IDEA 2004 represent a shift from process to results and outcomes



  • Working provides an opportunity to receive payments and benefits that lead to greater independence

  • Individual productivity on a daily basis is critical for dignity and self-esteem

  • Having a job facilitates the development of social networks and friendships

    (Wehman, 2006)

Self determination

Defined: A combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal-directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior (Wehmayer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998)

Curriculum consideration


Decision making


Goal expression and elaboration


Self-determined students with disabilities understand their strengths and limitations. They are able to take control of their lives and assume adult roles (Flexer et al., 2008).

Developmental characteristics ea

Early Adolescence:

10 - 14 years old

Withdraw from parents

Explore adult roles

Problem solving through trial and error

Abstract and deductive reasoning (Piaget, 1966)

Transition Planning

Focus on self-awareness

Explore career options

Develop self-determination (Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008)

Developmental Characteristics (EA)

Developmental characteristics ma

Transition Planning

Activities should develop self-confidence

Contextualized learning experiences (e.g., work in the community)

Focus on independent living, leisure, and extracurricular activities

Middle Adolescence

15 - 17 years old

Pressure to conform and engage in risk-taking behavior

Discrepancy between actual self and self-perceptions is most pronounced (Lichtenstein, 1998)

Drop out rates increase as students avoid frustration and embarrassment

Developmental Characteristics (MA)

Developmental characteristics la

Late Adolescence

18 - mid 20s

Develop personal identity and intimacy


Postsecondary education opportunities

Transition Planning

Problem solving

Sensible decisions


Support from adult services program

Developmental Characteristics (LA)

Other ecological transition considerations

Other Ecological Transition Considerations

  • Develop study skills, procedures for choosing institutions, exam strategies, financial aid, and disability support services (Postsecondary education)

  • Provide social services, support personal hygiene,financial and community supports (Poverty)

  • Educate and involve parents in transition planning, include their role in employment and continued support post-IEP (Relationships with parents)

  • Choosing courses, organizing schedules, mastering content (High school)

Person centered planning

Person-Centered Planning

  • Develop meaningful adult living goals and a means to achieve those goals

  • A team works to identify the student’s history, dreams, nightmares, relationships, and abilities

  • The team should analyze the environment the student plans to enter, the demands of that environment, and the skills and supports necessary to succeed (ecological perspective)

  • Plan with the end goals in mind (backward plan)

  • Develop benchmarks

Transition service integration model

Transition Service Integration Model

  • Integrates resources from schools, the rehabilitation system, and the developmental disabilities system

  • Collaborative effort during the last year of school (typically age 21) to provide a paid, direct hire job

  • Secure funding to continue employment

  • Provide opportunities for community participation

  • Support autonomy and self-determination

    (Certo et al., 2003)

Transition skills




Emergency Care


Social etiquette

Dining out


Work habits






Transition Skills

Introduction to secondary transition

Relations with peers

High School

Mass media

Relationships with parents

Role of work


Extracurricular activities


Pursuit of independence

Postsecondary education

Risk taking, Juvenile crime

Ecological View of Adolescence (Lichtenstein, 1998)

Transition implications of ecologic view

Transition Implications of Ecologic View

  • Establish social connections and community participation after high school (Relationships)

  • Positive role models (Mass Media)

  • Realistic understanding of the disability (Role of Work)

  • Encourage and support extracurricular activities as part of the IEP (Extracurricular)

  • Teach independent living, travel, and life-skills (Independence)

  • Teach safety precautions, natural consequences, and emergency procedures (Risk taking)

Cross s barrier model 1981

Cross’s Barrier Model(1981)

  • Situational - lack of time or money

  • Institutional - schedules or location

  • Dispositional - attitudes or self perceptions

Thoughts on ecological view of transition

Thoughts on Ecological View of Transition

  • How might a critical analysis of the macro-systems affecting transition enable us to provide efficacious service delivery options for individuals with disabilities?

  • Macro-systems refers to looking at transition through a holistic lens or the “big picture” approach.In what ways does a critical analysis of the big picture help us provide an effective transition and related services for individuals with disabilities?

Introduction to secondary transition

Stigma /


Defeated attitude

Victim complex

Relationships with



Separated from

Peers/ isolation

Introduction to secondary transition


Lack of choices

Pursuit of


Student life goals


Introduction to secondary transition

Lack of technology

& resources



Family history

Lack of basic



Introduction to secondary transition


Computer /


Mass media

Junk Mail

(credit card offers)

Promotion of

drugs &


Introduction to secondary transition



Difficulty with

social skills &


High School

Multiple buildings

Peer pressure

Introduction to secondary transition


Family support

Financial stability

Pursuit of


Housing / location



Introduction to secondary transition


Proving one’s self

by acting against

social norms

Gang affiliation /

peer pressure

Risk-taking /

Juvenile Crime


Drugs & Alcohol



Introduction to secondary transition

Generation Gap

Absent parents

Dependence vs.


Relationships with


Child at the center

of marital



Family values /


Introduction to secondary transition

Interview &




Time Management



Financial &



Work Load




Introduction to secondary transition




w/ peers








Team Player

In your flexer text don t miss

In your Flexer text don’t miss!

Chapter 1

  • Ecological view of adolescence, p.6

  • Table 1-1, p. 9

  • Definition of transition services under IDEA 2004, p. 13

  • Self determination defined, p. 17

  • Person-centered planning, p. 19

  • Community based experiences, p. 21

  • Postsecondary education, p.24

  • Family involvement, p.25

  • Transition system issues, p. 27

Chapter 2

  • Kohler’s transition education model, p. 48

  • IDEA 2004 transition requirements, p. 51

    Chapter 3

  • Essential elements of transition planning, p. 56

  • Cultural and racial inequities, p. 58-59.

  • Table 3-1, p. 62

  • Table 3-2, p. 64

  • Table 3-3, p. 65

  • Six step strategy to guide reflection, p. 69

  • Table 3-5, p. 75

In your flexer et al text don t miss

In your Flexer et al. text don’t miss

Chapter 4

  • Factors contributing to unemployment & difficulties students’ face, p. 84

  • Four stages of career development, p. 95

  • Table 4-1, p.96

    Chapter 5

  • Table 5-2, p. 107

  • assessments, p. 109-129.

    Chapter 6

  • Table 6-1, p. 139

  • Table 6-2, p. 141

  • Table 6-3, p. 143

  • Figure 6-3, p. 146

  • Figure 6-4, p. 147

  • Steps for curriculum planning, p. 148-157

Chapter 7

  • Figure 7-1, p. 163

  • Table 7-1, p. 165

  • Managing instructional environments, p. 166-170

  • Chapter 8

  • Table 8-1, p. 182

  • Monitoring and evaluation, p. 183-184

  • Table 8-3, p. 188

  • Table 8-4, p. 190

  • Figure 8-1, p. 198-199

In dell et al don t miss

In Dell et al. don’t miss

Chapter 1

  • Figure 1-1. , p. 5

  • Figure 1-4, p. 11

    Chapter 2 - ALL

    Chapter 3 – ALL

    Chapter 4 – ALL

    Chapter 5

  • Figure 5-1, p. 114

  • Figure 5-9, p. 121

    Chapter 6

  • Accessibility features p. 147-155

    Chapter 7

  • Table 7-1, p. 158

  • Table 7-2, p. 166

  • Table 7-3, p. 174

  • Alternative output options, p. 184-185

Chapter 8 – ALL

Chapter 9

  • Table 9-1, p. 217

  • Table 9-2, p. 219

  • Table 9-4, p. 220

  • Figures 9-1 & 2, p. 223 - 227

    Chapter 10 – Skip (syllabus change)

    Chapter 11

  • Table 11-3, p. 266

  • Table 11-4, p. 271

  • Tips for parents, p. 273

  • Figure 11-3, p. 276-277

    Chapter 12 – ALL

    Chapter 13 - ALL

503 reading presentations

503 Reading / Presentations

February 5

  • Shelly - Bond, R. & Castagnera, E. (2006). Peer supports and inclusive education: An underutilized resource. Theory into Practice, 45(3), 224-229.

  • Angy - Conderman, G. J., & Katsiyannis, A. (2002). Instructional issues and practices in secondary special education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 23, 167-179.

    February 12

  • Gale - Edyburn, D. L. (2004). Rethinking assistive technology. Special Education Technology Practice, 5(4), 16-23.

    February 19

  • Ken - Christensen, R., Overall, T., & Knezek, G. (2006). Personal educational tools (PETs) for Type II learning. Computers in the Schools, 23(1/2), 173-189.

  • Teresa - Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. C. (1999). Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology and curriculum design. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3&4), 350-391

    February 26

  • Cindy - Kirschner, P.A., & Erkens, G. (2006). Cognitive tools and mindtools for collaborative learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 35(2), 199-209.

  • Ben - Maccini, P., Gagnon, J. C. & Hughes, C. A. (2002). Technology-based practices for secondary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 247-261.

    March 5

  • Matt - Higgins, K., Boone, R., & Williams, D. (2000). Evaluating educational software for special education. Intervention is School and Clinic, 36(2), 109-115.

  • Teresa - MacArthur, C. A., Ferretti, R. P., Okolo, C. M., & Cavalier, A. R. (2001). Technology applications for students with literacy problems: A critical review. The Elementary School Journal, 101, 273-301.

    March 12

  • Carolyn - Reed, P. R. & Lahm, E. A. (2005). A resource guide for teachers and administrators about assistive technology (general edition).

    April 9

  • Jessica - McGuire, J., Scott, S., & Shaw, S. (2006). Universal design for learning and its applications in educational environments. Remedial and Special Education, 27(3), 166-175.

  • Teresa - Burgstahler, S. (2003). The role of technology in preparing youth with disabilities for postsecondary education and employment. Journal of Special Education Technology, 18(4), 7-19.

Transition assessment

Transition Assessment

Purposes of transition assessment

Purposes of Transition Assessment

  • Determine education, working, living, personal, & social requirements

  • Evaluate the student in terms of proficiency, agency eligibility, and admission standards

  • Match individuals with appropriate program options

Introduction to secondary transition

Halpern’s Transition Model (1985)

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 43)

Introduction to secondary transition

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008)

Collecting evidence

Collecting Evidence

  • Thus far we have utilized an ecological perspective to understand the transition planning process, deconstructed it into component parts, and identified barriers that might inhibit the success of secondary students with disabilities.

  • Now we need to identify the evidence we should collect to make this determination.

  • What should we collect, observe, or document? How often? How will we know if our plan is successful?

Transition planning

Transition Planning

  • Identify interests, abilities, capabilities, strengths, needs, potentials, & behaviors

  • Try different tasks to determine how preferences match abilities for program options and postsecondary settings

  • Identify concrete ways to help students, families, and team members work toward common goals

    (Flexer et al., 2008, p. 107)

Lehigh transition reports

Lehigh Transition Reports

  • Consider the substantive depth and breadth of these documents and the time constraints inherent with current special education teacher case loads. Critically analyze the documents and help us, as a class, develop a plan to incorporate the most salient aspects of their model into our future transition planning.

  • What themes were present in our class responses?

  • Create an outline of our transition plan.

Person centered planning1

Person-Centered Planning

  • Driven by individuals and their families

  • Focuses on individual attributes and capacities

  • Future-oriented

  • Collaborative (community commitment)

  • Emphasizes supports and connections

    Everson & Reid (1999)

Do we have anything to add to this?

Role of the transition coordinator

Role of the Transition Coordinator

  • Services within the school

  • Interagency / business linkage

  • Assessment and counseling

  • Community education and training

  • Family support

  • Advocacy

  • Program development, implementation, assessment, and evaluation

Quality indicators of transition assessment instruments

Quality Indicators of Transition Assessment Instruments

  • Validity - accurately measure the stated construct (e.g., self-determination)

  • Reliability - replicable results (stability)

  • Ease of use

  • Scoring

  • Meaningful outcomes

Formal transition assessments

Formal Transition Assessments

  • Norm-referenced - Compare student to peer group of similar age and developmental level

  • Criterion-referenced - Evaluate mastery of discrete skills, specific tasks, or technological proficiency

  • Tend to be standardized in terms of administration and evaluation of results

  • Provide a limited but useful view of the individual

Introduction to secondary transition

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 111)

Formal transition assessment examples

Formal Transition Assessment Examples

  • Wide-Range Interest and Opinion Test (WRIOT)$840

  • Bennett Hand-Tool Dexterity Test$247

  • Test of Interpersonal Competency for Employment (TICE)$99

  • Waksman Social Skills Rating Form$60

  • The Job Observation Behavior Scale (JOBS)$140

  • American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) Adaptive Behavior Scales$172,69632&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

Functional informal assessments

Functional & Informal Assessments

  • Provide detailed information about individual’s specific strengths & areas of need

  • Supplement standardized assessments

  • Results provide authentic information about how the student performs in specific environments

  • Provide a starting point for instruction

  • Allow for the development of progress monitoring systems

Introduction to secondary transition

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 119)

Introduction to secondary transition

The Knowledge Battery (KB)

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 116)

Introduction to secondary transition

The Knowledge Battery (KB):


(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 117)

Introduction to secondary transition

Sample ecological job analysis

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 122)

Introduction to secondary transition

Sample ecological job analysis:


(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 123)

Introduction to secondary transition

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 120)

Introduction to secondary transition

Kent State

Transition Services Job Analysis

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 124)

Introduction to secondary transition

Kent State

Transition Services Job Analysis


(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 125)

Formal transition assessments1

Formal Transition Assessments

  • Norm-referenced - Compare student to peer group of similar age and developmental level

  • Criterion-referenced - Evaluate mastery of discrete skills, specific tasks, or technological proficiency

  • Tend to be standardized in terms of administration and evaluation of results

  • Provide a limited but useful view of the individual

Functional informal assessments1

Functional & Informal Assessments

  • Provide detailed information about individual’s specific strengths & areas of need

  • Supplement standardized assessments

  • Results provide authentic information about how the student performs in specific environments

  • Provide a starting point for instruction

  • Allow for the development of progress monitoring systems

Introduction to secondary transition

Sample ecological job analysis

(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 122)

Introduction to secondary transition

Sample ecological job analysis:


(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 123)

Sample plan section i

Sample Plan - Section I

  • Background Information

  • Rationale for Assessment

  • Assessment Format

  • Assessment Protocol

  • Person-Centered Planning (likes, dislikes, and wants)

    - continuing education

    - employment preferences

    - community participation

    - social participation

    - home living

    - self-care

    - academic (functional)

Sample plan section ii

Sample Plan - Section II

  • Academic Assessments

    - reading sight words

    - reading and spelling

    - standardized test (Kaufman Functional Academic Skills)

    - general questions and math

  • Management and Planning Assessments

  • Vocational Assessments

    - included anecdotal information

    - task analysis

    - public transportation

    - safety issues

    - community skills

    - dress code and personal care

Sample plan section iii

Sample Plan - Section III

  • Ecological Inventories for Future Integration (anecdotal information)

    - recreation and leisure

    - continuing education

    - instructional strategies

    - classroom strategies

  • Behavior

    - demonstrations of inappropriate behavior

    - possible reasons for behavior

    - alternatives

Sample plan section iv

Sample Plan - Section IV

  • Evaluation Summary

    - strengths

    - support needs

    - recommendations

Origins of universal design ud

Origins of Universal Design (UD)

  • Developed from architecture in the early 1970’s at North Carolina State University

  • Based on the idea that all products should be usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or status in life.

  • Examples of Universal Design include curb cuts, TV captioning, & pictorial representation on restroom doors.

Universal design for learning udl

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

  • An educational application of the original architecture-based UD construct

  • Developed at the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) for K-12 students

  • UDL is designed to improve access, participation, and progress in the general education curriculum

  • UDL challenges teachers to anticipate, reduce, and/or eliminate barriers by creating flexible curricula

Premise for udl

Premise for UDL

  • Barriers occur as diverse learners interact with curriculum (e.g., nonreaders working with text)

  • The curriculum and instruction are the problem, NOT the students

  • Curricula should consider student differences at the outset… as opposed to retrofitting existing instructional plans (Meyer & Rose, 2005)

Udl is based on brain research

UDL is Based on Brain Research

Research using the following tools indicates that global measures of intelligence (e.g., IQ) do not account for individual learning differences at the neural level within the brain (Dolan & Hall, 2001; Wallis & Bulthoff, 1999)

  • Positron emission tomography (PET)

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

  • Quantitative electroencephalography (Qeeg)

Individual learning experiences shape neural pathways

Individual Learning Experiences Shape Neural Pathways

  • Brain activity varies by individual based on previous experiences with the learning tasks(Hund-Georgiadis & von Cramon, 1999; Shaywitz, 2003)

  • Modules within the brain expand and contract based on personal experiences(van Mier, Fiez, & Raichle, 1998)

  • Repetition and practice produce changes at the behavioral level and at the neural level within the brain(Meyer & Rose, 2002)

Neural networks within the brian

Neural Networks within the Brian

CAST recognizes 3 primary networks

  • Recognition networks receive and analyze information “What is this?”

  • Strategic networks allow individuals to plan and carry out actions “How am I going to do that?”

  • Affective networks are involved in establishing priorities “Why should I do this?”

    (Rose, Meyer, & Hitchcock, 2005)

Udl addresses problems with traditional assessments

UDL Addresses Problems with Traditional Assessments

  • Print-based assessments measure visual acuity, decoding ability, writing ability, reading fluency, and reading comprehension before they measure subject-specific content knowledge

  • Students’ performance on print-based assessments can cause teachers to purport inaccurate inferences regarding students’ learning(Russell & Haney, 2000)

  • Traditional assessments often focus on outcomes (e.g., # of terms recalled) without considering process

Principles of udl

Principles of UDL

  • Enhance recognition by providing multiple flexible methods of presentation

  • Support strategic learning by providing multiple flexible methods of modeling and expression

  • Support affective learning by providing multiple flexible options for engagement

Udl teaching methods

Support Recognition

“What is this?”

Multiple examples

Highlight critical features

Provide multiple media and formats

Support background context

Support Strategic Networks

“How am I going to do that?”

Flexible models of performance

Provide opportunities to practice with supports

Provide ongoing relevant feedback

Flexible opportunities to demonstrate skills

UDL Teaching Methods

Udl teaching methods1

UDL Teaching Methods

To Support Affective Networks

“Why should I do this?”

  • Offer choices of content specificity whenever possible

  • Provide multiple tools to access the curriculum

  • Adjust levels of challenge within assignments

  • Offer choices of rewards

  • Provide choices of learning context

The udl teaching process

Set Goals

Identify standards-based learning goals

Establish context

Identify Status

Identify methods, materials, and assessments

Identify barriers

Teach UDL Lesson

Teach lesson

Evaluate effectiveness

Unforeseen barriers?


  • Apply UDL

  • Identify UDL materials and methods

  • Write UDL Plan

  • Collect and organize materials

The UDL Teaching Process

Udl differentiated instruction

UDL & Differentiated Instruction

  • UDL is a theoretical framework for instructional design

  • Differentiated Instruction is a practice that can be implemented within the Universal Design framework

  • Differentiated Instruction and UDL both encourage curricula that is flexible and designed to decrease learning barriers

Theory to practice

Access, participation,

& progress in the general education curriculum

Theory to Practice

Three elements of differentiation

Three Elements of Differentiation


  • Several materials are used to present the content

  • Tasks are aligned with instructional goals

  • Instruction is concept focused and principle driven


  • Flexible grouping

  • Multiple strategies for classroom management


  • Continual assessment of student progress

  • Students as active participants

  • Vary expectations and requirements

Additional components of differentiated instruction

Additional Components of Differentiated Instruction

  • Clarify key concepts

  • Use assessment as a tool to inform instruction

  • Emphasize critical and creative thinking

  • Provide a balance between teacher-assigned and student-selected tasks

Recognition learning what

Recognition Learning “What”

Teaching methods

Strategic learning how

Strategic Learning “How”

Teaching methods

Affective learning why

Affective Learning “Why”

Teaching methods

Barriers to student learning

Barriers to Student Learning

  • Prior knowledge about the concept

  • Seeing, decoding, or fluently reading text

  • Filtering extraneous sensory information

  • Keeping track of information (e.g., organization)

  • Lack of interest with the topic

  • Ability to maintain focus for an appropriate period of time

Strategies for building prior knowledge in a udl framework

Strategies for Building Prior Knowledge in a UDL Framework

  • Direct Instruction (DI) (Adams & Engelmann, 1996)

  • Reflection and recording (Carr & Thompson, 1996)

  • Interactive discussions (Jackson, Harper, & Jackson, 2005)

  • Answering questions (King, 1994)

  • The K-W-L strategy (Ogle, 1986; Fisher, Frey, & Williams, 2002)

  • Computer assisted activation (Biemans, Deel, & Simons, 2001)

Eliminating recognition strategic barriers

Eliminating Recognition & Strategic Barriers

  • Differentiated Instruction

  • Graphic organizers (e.g., thematic maps, network tree, problem and solution map)

  • Advanced outlines

  • Digital media

  • Assistive Technology

  • Opportunities for dialogue

Eliminating affective barriers

Eliminating Affective Barriers

  • Provide choices in context

  • Peek student interests

  • Co-teach with students

  • Authentic assignments

  • Real world applications

  • Technology simulations

  • Tools that support out-of-reach activities



Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)

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