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Lynn Erickson Slides

  • These slides may be used on a limited basis to share information in your school or school district with appropriate credits to

  • H. Lynn Erickson.


The Integration

of Thinking

The Key to Deep Understanding

& the Transfer of Knowledge


Let’s think about…

* Is “integration” about what we do with

subjects or is it really a cognitive process?

* How is knowledge structured? How does that

structure reflect the different levels of thinking?

* What is a “conceptual lens” and why is it

essential to the integration of thinking?

* How can we adapt our instructional units to

support the integration of student thinking at a

higher level.

* What does integrated thinking and teaching “look like?”


The structure of knowledge

  • Economic depression in one country can

  • significantly impact other nations.

  • In times of crisis, individual leaders can

  • exert power and shape the course of

  • events.

The Structure of Knowledge

Scarcity Supply & Demand

Economic Depression Leadership

The Great Depression

At which levels does knowledge transfer?


Concept
Concept

A concept is an organizing idea;

a mental construct...

  • Timeless

  • Universal

  • Abstract

  • Represented by 1 or 2 words

  • Examples share common attributes


Examples of subject area concepts

-Science

Order

Organism

Population

System

Change

Evolution

Cycle

Interaction

Energy/Matter

Equilibrium

Examples of Subject Area Concepts

  • Conflict/Cooperation

  • Patterns

  • Populations

  • System

  • Change/Continuity

  • Culture

  • Evolution

  • Civilization

  • Migration/Immigration

  • Interdependence

- Social Studies

-Literary Themes

  • -Writers’ Craft

  • Organization

  • Word Choice

  • Context

  • Conventions

  • Fluency

  • Voice

  • Presentation

  • Symbolism

  • Allegory

  • Metaphor

  • Protagonist

  • Antagonist

  • Prejudice

  • Perspective

  • Conflict

  • Cooperation

  • Power

  • Relationships

  • Envy

  • Emotions

  • Oppression

  • Influence


Examples of subject area concepts1

  • Mathematics

  • Number

  • Ratio

  • Proportion

  • Symmetry

  • Probability

  • Pattern

  • Order

  • Quantification

  • System

  • Visual Art

  • Rhythm

  • Line

  • Color

  • Value

  • Shape

  • Texture

  • Form

  • Space

  • Angle

  • Music

  • Rhythm

  • Melody

  • Harmony

  • Tone

  • Pitch

  • Form

  • Tempo

  • Timbre

  • Pattern

  • Examples of Subject Area Concepts


    Generalizations are summaries of thought

    GENERALIZATIONS ARE SUMMARIES OF THOUGHT

    “WHAT DO I UNDERSTAND AS A RESULT OF MY STUDY THAT I CAN TRANSFER?”


    Generalization enduring understanding

    GENERALIZATION=Enduring Understanding

    Concept

    Concept

    Two or more concepts in a relationship...

    • CONCEPTUAL IDEAS THAT TRANSFER

    • DEVELOP “DEEP UNDERSTANDING’


    The Structure of Knowledge

    The student understands that..._____________________________________________________.

    3

    2

    1


    The integration of thinking the power of a conceptual lens

    The Integration of Thinking &The Power of aConceptual Lens


    The american media

    Conceptual Lens?

    The American Media


    The american media1

    Persuasive Force

    Conceptual lens:

    The American Media


    Conceptual Lens?

    Significant Individuals

    in History


    Leadership
    Leadership

    Conceptual lens:

    Significant Individuals

    in History

    The conceptual lens “integrates thinking”

    at a level beyond the facts.


    Conceptual Lens:_________________

    Topic:_______________


    Sample Conceptual Lenses

    Conflict Complexity

    Beliefs/Values Paradox

    Interdependence Interactions

    Freedom Transformations

    Identity Patterns

    Relationships Origins

    Change Revolution

    Perspective Reform

    Power Influence

    System Balance

    Structure/Function Innovation

     Design Genius

     Aesthetic Heroes

     Force Creativity


    To develop the intellect and increase motivation for learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.


    The Conceptual Mind learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.

    engages the

    Personal Intellect


    • creates connections to prior experience and learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.

      finds relevance;

    • synergistically works with factual level knowledge

      to develop the intellect;

    • creates deeper understanding at the factual and

      conceptual levels;

    • recognizes the transferablity of knowledge.

    • creates the motivation for learning

    It is the conceptual mind that…


    The integration of thinking adapting instructional units

    The Integration of Thinking: learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.Adapting Instructional Units


    Coordinated, Multidisciplinary learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.

    Topic Organizer:

    A Little Art

    A Little Math

    Use of Language Processes

    The

    Human Body

    A Little Science

    The “Potpourri Unit”

    of facts & activities

    A Little Literature


    Integration learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking. refers to the cognitive process of seeing patterns and connections at the conceptual levelof thinking.


    This cognitive processing requires an integrating, “conceptual lens” such as Interdependence or Systemto set up the intellectual synergy between the factual and conceptual levels of the mind.


    Integrated inter disciplinary

    Literature “conceptual lens” such as

    System

    Conceptual Lens:

    The Human Body

    (Science concepts)

    The Scarlet Ibis (J. Hurst)

    (limits of the human body)

    To the Top: Annapurna (Blum)

    (endurance, respiratory system)

    Health

    Integrated, Interdisciplinary

    Wellness

    Nutrition

    Eating Disorders

    Weight Management

    Substance Abuse

    Diseases

    Physical Education

    The

    Human Body

    Body Control

    Movement

    Coordination

    Musculatory System

    Fitness

    Endurance

    Science

    Math

    Calculations: heart rate, body mass,

    Statistics

    Measurements: height, weight

    Ratios

    Charts; graphs

    Art

    Circulatory System

    Respiratory System

    Digestive System, etc.

    Function & structure

    Interdependence

    Draw a body:

    symmetry, line, shape

    Human forms - art

    realism, abstract,

    cubist


    The goal of integration

    ... is to facilitate integrated, higher level thinking. “conceptual lens” such as

    The goal of integration...

    The conceptual lens

    pulls thinking to the

    integration level.


    Interdependence “conceptual lens” such as

    (lens)

    History

    • Early explorers

    • Immigrants

    • Statehistorical events

    • Significant individuals

    and ideas that shaped

    the development of the

    state and regions

    • Interactions that shaped

    the development

    Grade 4

    Culture

    • Indigenous peoples

    - ways of living

    - use of resources

    - then and now

    • Explorers and settlers

    - the impact of merging cultures

    - daily lives

    • State symbols,

    monuments, statues…

    Getting to

    Know Our

    State and

    Region

    Economics

    • Land use in state and region

    - industrial, recreational, commercial,

    residential

    • Economic activities:

    - location of businesses related to

    factors of production, consumption

    and distribution

    - Impact of technology on the economy

    (state and region)

    • Opportunity cost - The value of the

    best alternative passed by (not selected)

    • Cost/benefit

    • Economic incentives

    • Barter as trade

    • Specialization

    • Price changes: supply and demand

    • Human resource - labor

    • Inflation; deflation

    Geography

    • Place and location of

    state within the U.S.

    relative to other state;

    other regions; in the

    world

    • Geographic features:

    - landforms, bodies of

    water, soils,

    vegetation, climate

    • Geographic tools to

    consider spatial

    concepts: location,

    distance, direction,

    scale, movement...

    • Human/Environmental

    interactions

    - Plant and Animal Life

    Government

    • Stategovernment

    - Structure, function, responsibilities

    • Power and Authority

    • Limited and unlimited governments

    • Taxation: individuals,

    business

    • RulesandLaws

    • Citizenship - Personal and civic

    • Relationship of state to federal

    government

    • Thecommon good

    (Concepts italicized)


    Grade 4 “conceptual lens” such as

    Interdependence: Getting to Know Our State and Region

    • Culture:

    • Indigenous peoples depend on the environment for resources to meet basic

    • needs.

    • 2. Explorers extend the boundaries of human experience in search of wealth, power, and new opportunities.

    • 3. Settlers to a region adapt their lifestyle to fit the environment.

    • 4. States and regions develop an identity based on their history, geography, economics and culture.

    Idea-Centered

    Economics:

    1. The geography and economy of a region suggest the kinds of industry.

    2. The geography and economy of a region suggest the methods of production

    and product or service distribution.

    3. Current communication and transportation technologies allow goods to be

    produced in distant locations at a lower cost, and shipped to market.

    4. Technology can replace many human labor tasks in industry.


    Industrialization and Paradox “conceptual lens” such as

    Grade8

    History

    • Native Americans

    - attitudes and policies

    toward Native

    Americans

    by government

    officials, the U.S.

    Army, missionaries,

    and settlers

    - Dawes Severalty Act

    of 1877

    Economics

    • Industrialization, the

    advent of the modern

    corporation, and

    material well-being

    - ideas of business leaders

    to limit competition and

    maximize profits

    • Farming, mining, and

    ranching

    - commercial farming in

    the Northeast, South,

    Great Plains, and West

    . Differences in terms of

    crop production, farm

    labor, financing, and

    transportation

    Culture

    • Growth of cities

    - response of urban

    leaders, such as

    architects and

    philanthropists

    to the challenges

    of rapid

    urbanization

    • Immigration after 1870

    - changing patterns:

    volume, ethnicity,

    religion, language,

    place of origin, and

    motives

    - response of Catholic

    and Jewish immigrants

    to religious

    discrimination

    • New cultural movements

    The Development

    of the Industrial

    United States

    1870-1900

    Geography

    • Industrialization and

    the environment

    - impact of rapid

    industrialization,

    extractive mining

    techniques, and the

    “gridiron” pattern of

    urban growth on the

    environment

    Government

    • Growth of cities and

    changes in urban life

    - increasing power of

    urban political

    machines and how

    they were viewed by

    immigrants and middle class reformers


    The Development of the Industrial.:1870-1900 “conceptual lens” such as

    Middle School

    • Economics/Culture:

    • Industrialization and large increases in immigrant populations create rapid urbanization.

    • Economics/Culture:

    • 2. Labor unions organize workers to protest working conditions, or wages which are perceived as unfair.

    • Economics:

    • 3. Industrialization leads to the development of corporations, managed by business leaders who seek to limit competition and maximize profits.

    • Culture:

    • 4. Large immigrant populations from diverse cultures can change the social, political, and economic dynamics of a nation.

    Idea-Centered


    Teachers
    TEACHERS “conceptual lens” such as

    ARE ARCHITECTS

    FOR LEARNING


    Integrated, “conceptual lens” such as Intradisciplinary

    Bond Energy

    • potential energy

    • bond strength

    • exothermic and

    endothermic bonds

    Electronegativity

    • periodic table trend

    • ionic/covalent continuum

    System/Interaction

    (Conceptual Lens)

    Bond Types

    • covalent, ionic, metallic

    • polar covalent

    • orbital hybridization

    • sigma and pi bonds

    Modern Materials

    • liquid crystals

    • polymers

    • ceramics

    Unit Theme

    Chemical

    Bonding

    Compounds & Properties

    • amorphous solid

    • crystalline solid

    - moelcular, ionic, atomic

    • liquids

    - molecules with strong

    intermolecular forces

    • gases

    - molecules with weak

    intermolecular forces

    Molecular Shape

    • VSEPR Theory

    • Valence-bond theory

    • polarity

    Intermolecular Forces

    • London dispersion

    • dipole-dipole

    • hydrogen bonding

    Atomic Structures

    • valence electrons

    • formation of ions

    • electronegativity

    Figure 5.11. Chemistry Unit

    Source: Jean Lummis, Washington Township High School

    Washington Township School District, Sewell, New Jersey; used with permission

    (Concepts italicized)


    Lens? “conceptual lens” such as

    Lens?

    Book 2

    Literary Themes

    Writer’s Craft

    Book 1

    (Concepts)

    (Concepts)

    Historical Fiction

    To Kill a

    Mockingbird

    Book 3

    (Concepts)

    Loss of Innocence

    Loss of

    Innocence

    In an

    Imperfect World


    Generalizations are summaries of thought1

    GENERALIZATIONS ARE SUMMARIES OF THOUGHT “conceptual lens” such as

    “WHAT DO I UNDERSTAND AS A RESULT OF MY STUDY THAT I CAN TRANSFER?”


    Generalization enduring understanding1

    GENERALIZATION= “conceptual lens” such as Enduring Understanding

    Concept

    Concept

    Two or more concepts in a relationship...

    • CONCEPTUAL IDEAS THAT TRANSFER

    • DEVELOP “DEEP UNDERSTANDING’


    Sample generalizations social studies
    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Social Studies

    • Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.

    • Social, economic and political systems structure a society.

    • Changes in laws and rules reflect changes in power relationships.


    Sample generalizations social studies1

    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Social Studies

    Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.

    Social, economic and political systems structure a society.

    Changes in laws and rules reflect changes in power relationships.


    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Social Studies

    • Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.

    • Social, economic and political systems structure a society.

    • Changes in lawsand rules reflect changes in power relationships.


    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Social Studies

    • Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.

    • Social, economic and political systems structure a society.

    • Changes in lawsandrules reflect changes in power relationships.


    Sample generalizations science

    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Science

    Properties distinguish living and non-living things.

    Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.

    Cells store energy in a variety of forms.

    Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.


    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Science

    • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.

    • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.

    • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.

    • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.


    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Science

    • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.

    • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.

    • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.

    • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.


    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Science

    • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.

    • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.

    • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.

    • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.


    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Science

    • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.

    • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.

    • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.

    • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.


    Sample generalizations art
    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Art

    • Line defines shape and adds meaning.

    • Texture conveys nuance.

    • Positive and negative space create balance.

    • Color creates mood.


    Sample generalizations art1
    Sample Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as Art

    • Line defines shape and adds meaning.

    • Texture conveys nuance.

    • Positive and negative space create balance.

    • Color creates mood.


    Sample Mathematics Generalizations “conceptual lens” such as

    Numbers and Operations

    Grade level

    9. Absolute value represents magnitude without regard

    to direction.

    10. Exponents and logarithms are inverse operations.

    Matrices can represent multi-dimensional information

    to aid in the solution of a problem.

    Algebra

    Grade level

    • K. Patterns can be extended.

    • 1. Number can show order.

    • Variables represent a unique value in equations.

    • The solutions to a one-step linear equation with a single

    • variable represents the value that makes

    • the equation true.


    Generalizations

    GENERALIZATIONS “conceptual lens” such as

    PROPER OR PERSONAL NOUNS

    PAST

    PAST PERFECT

    PRESENT PERFECT

    TENSE VERBS


    When we teach to the levels of concepts and “conceptual lens” such as

    generalizations we are teaching for deep

    understanding and the transfer of knowledge.


    Integrated inter disciplinary1

    Literature “conceptual lens” such as

    System

    Conceptual Lens:

    The Human Body

    (Science concepts)

    The Scarlet Ibis (J. Hurst)

    (limits of the human body)

    To the Top: Annapurna (Blum)

    (endurance, respiratory system)

    Health

    Integrated, Interdisciplinary

    Wellness

    Nutrition

    Eating Disorders

    Weight Management

    Substance Abuse

    Diseases

    Physical Education

    The

    Human Body

    Body Control

    Movement

    Coordination

    Musculatory System

    Fitness

    Endurance

    Science

    Math

    Calculations: heart rate, body mass,

    Statistics

    Measurements: height, weight

    Ratios

    Charts; graphs

    Art

    Circulatory System

    Respiratory System

    Digestive System, etc.

    Function & structure

    Interdependence

    Draw a body:

    symmetry, line, shape

    Human forms - art

    realism, abstract,

    cubist


    Interdependence “conceptual lens” such as

    (lens)

    History

    • Early explorers

    • Immigrants

    • Statehistorical events

    • Significant individuals

    and ideas that shaped

    the development of the

    state and regions

    • Interactions that shaped

    the development

    Grade 4

    Culture

    • Indigenous peoples

    - ways of living

    - use of resources

    - then and now

    • Explorers and settlers

    - the impact of merging cultures

    - daily lives

    • State symbols,

    monuments, statues…

    Getting to

    Know Our

    State and

    Region

    Economics

    • Land use in state and region

    - industrial, recreational, commercial,

    residential

    • Economic activities:

    - location of businesses related to

    factors of production, consumption

    and distribution

    - Impact of technology on the economy

    (state and region)

    • Opportunity cost - The value of the

    best alternative passed by (not selected)

    • Cost/benefit

    • Economic incentives

    • Barter as trade

    • Specialization

    • Price changes: supply and demand

    • Human resource - labor

    • Inflation; deflation

    Geography

    • Place and location of

    state within the U.S.

    relative to other state;

    other regions; in the

    world

    • Geographic features:

    - landforms, bodies of

    water, soils,

    vegetation, climate

    • Geographic tools to

    consider spatial

    concepts: location,

    distance, direction,

    scale, movement...

    • Human/Environmental

    interactions

    - Plant and Animal Life

    Government

    • Stategovernment

    - Structure, function, responsibilities

    • Power and Authority

    • Limited and unlimited governments

    • Taxation: individuals,

    business

    • RulesandLaws

    • Citizenship - Personal and civic

    • Relationship of state to federal

    government

    • Thecommon good

    (Concepts italicized)


    High School “conceptual lens” such as

    Perspectives

    History

    Sept. 11, 2001

    as a “turning point”

    Afghanistan and

    the hunt for Bin Laden

    Al Qaeda/terrorist groups

    Significant individuals

    *Bush *Blair *Hussein…

    Iraq

    *Saddam Hussein

    * citizens

    The allies and

    their roles

    Lens:

    • Culture

    • Religion

    • Beliefs/Values

    • Perspectives

    • Terrorists/Terrorism

    • Cultures

    • Oppression/Oppressed

    The War

    on Terrorism

    • Economics

    • Cost of war

    • * human

    • * environmental

    • * societal

    • Government

    • Leaders

    • Treaties

    • Policies

    • Leadership

    • Cooperation

    • Conflict

    Geography

    • Climate

    • Terrain

    • (or geography)

    • -Resources

    • -Geography and

    • war

    (Concepts italicized)


    Level 1 Verbs “conceptual lens” such as

    • affects

    • impacts

    • influence

    • to be verbs: is, are, have

    Level 1 Generalization:

    The student understands that…_______________________

    _________________________________________________.


    Scaffolding thinking
    Scaffolding Thinking “conceptual lens” such as


    Scaffolding thinking to complex levels

    Level 3 “conceptual lens” such as

    Celebrations and traditions unify a people and reflect their identity.

    So what—is the significance (or effect)—that celebrations

    express traditions?

    Level 2

    Celebrations express traditions of a culture.

    Why do cultures have celebrations?

    Level 1

    All cultures have celebrations.

    Scaffolding Thinking to Complex Levels

    Social Studies


    Scaffolding thinking to complex levels1
    Scaffolding Thinking to Complex Levels “conceptual lens” such as

    Level 3

    Nations with a strong economic infrastructure wield greater political power in international relations.

    So what is the effect or significance of a strong economic

    infrastructure for a society?

    Level 2

    Advances in technology lead to the development of new products and materials which can strengthen the economic infrastructure of a society.

    How (or Why) do advances in technology impact a society?

    Level 1

    Advances in technology impact a society.


    Scaffolding thinking to complex levels2
    Scaffolding Thinking to Complex Levels “conceptual lens” such as

    Science

    • Level 3

      • An organism’s behavioral responses to stimuli evolve through natural selection.

        • How do organisms change behaviors?

    • Level 2

      • Biological adaptations change structures, behaviors, or physiology and enhance reproductive success.

        • How do organisms survive?

    • Level 1

      • Organisms survive in diverse environments.


    Scaffolding Understandings— “conceptual lens” such as

    Gothic Literature: Edgar Allan Poe

    Thematic “Big Ideas” (Enduring Understandings)

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

    Guiltnarrows and

    intensifies focus

    and shapes

    perception.

    Perceptioncan cause

    people to make

    poor choices and

    decisions.

    Guiltaffects

    perception.

    How?

    So what?

    The Writer’s Craft

    Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

    Consonance, assonance

    andalliterationcreate a

    flowto thelanguage

    throughsound, rhyme,

    cadence and repetition.

    The use ofliterary

    devicescreates

    moodsandempha-

    sizeswords, connect-

    ing them to the

    ideasthey express.

    Consonance,assonance

    andalliterationenhance

    reading pleasure.

    by Del Whitmire

    & Amy Pritzl

    Green Bay, WI.

    How?

    So what?


    Evaluating Scaffolding “conceptual lens” such as

    Criteria

    • * Do the ideas grow in sophistication?

    • * Do the ideas become clearer from

    • level to level because they are more

    • specific (use more specific concepts)?

    • * Did the committee answer their question at

    • each level?

    • * Are the verbs active and present tense?

    • * Are the ideas based in fact? (Are they true?)

    • Are the ideas important?

    • Are the ideas developmentally appropriate?


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