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Lynn Erickson Slides. These slides may be used on a limited basis to share information in your school or school district with appropriate credits to H. Lynn Erickson. The Integration of Thinking. The Key to Deep Understanding & the Transfer of Knowledge. Let’s think about…

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slide1

Lynn Erickson Slides

  • These slides may be used on a limited basis to share information in your school or school district with appropriate credits to
  • H. Lynn Erickson.
slide2

The Integration

of Thinking

The Key to Deep Understanding

& the Transfer of Knowledge

slide3

Let’s think about…

* Is “integration” about what we do with

subjects or is it really a cognitive process?

* How is knowledge structured? How does that

structure reflect the different levels of thinking?

* What is a “conceptual lens” and why is it

essential to the integration of thinking?

* How can we adapt our instructional units to

support the integration of student thinking at a

higher level.

* What does integrated thinking and teaching “look like?”

the structure of knowledge

Economic depression in one country can

  • significantly impact other nations.
  • In times of crisis, individual leaders can
  • exert power and shape the course of
  • events.

The Structure of Knowledge

Scarcity Supply & Demand

Economic Depression Leadership

The Great Depression

At which levels does knowledge transfer?

concept
Concept

A concept is an organizing idea;

a mental construct...

  • Timeless
  • Universal
  • Abstract
  • Represented by 1 or 2 words
  • Examples share common attributes
examples of subject area concepts
-Science

Order

Organism

Population

System

Change

Evolution

Cycle

Interaction

Energy/Matter

Equilibrium

Examples of Subject Area Concepts
  • Conflict/Cooperation
  • Patterns
  • Populations
  • System
  • Change/Continuity
  • Culture
  • Evolution
  • Civilization
  • Migration/Immigration
  • Interdependence

- Social Studies

-Literary Themes

  • -Writers’ Craft
  • Organization
  • Word Choice
  • Context
  • Conventions
  • Fluency
  • Voice
  • Presentation
  • Symbolism
  • Allegory
  • Metaphor
  • Protagonist
  • Antagonist
  • Prejudice
  • Perspective
  • Conflict
  • Cooperation
  • Power
  • Relationships
  • Envy
  • Emotions
  • Oppression
  • Influence
examples of subject area concepts1

Mathematics

  • Number
  • Ratio
  • Proportion
  • Symmetry
  • Probability
  • Pattern
  • Order
  • Quantification
  • System
  • Visual Art
  • Rhythm
  • Line
  • Color
  • Value
  • Shape
  • Texture
  • Form
  • Space
  • Angle
    • Music
  • Rhythm
  • Melody
  • Harmony
  • Tone
  • Pitch
  • Form
  • Tempo
  • Timbre
  • Pattern

Examples of Subject Area Concepts

generalizations are summaries of thought

GENERALIZATIONS ARE SUMMARIES OF THOUGHT

“WHAT DO I UNDERSTAND AS A RESULT OF MY STUDY THAT I CAN TRANSFER?”

generalization enduring understanding

GENERALIZATION=Enduring Understanding

Concept

Concept

Two or more concepts in a relationship...

• CONCEPTUAL IDEAS THAT TRANSFER

• DEVELOP “DEEP UNDERSTANDING’

slide10

The Structure of Knowledge

The student understands that..._____________________________________________________.

3

2

1

slide14

Conceptual Lens?

Significant Individuals

in History

leadership
Leadership

Conceptual lens:

Significant Individuals

in History

The conceptual lens “integrates thinking”

at a level beyond the facts.

slide17

Sample Conceptual Lenses

Conflict Complexity

Beliefs/Values Paradox

Interdependence Interactions

Freedom Transformations

Identity Patterns

Relationships Origins

Change Revolution

Perspective Reform

Power Influence

System Balance

Structure/Function Innovation

 Design Genius

 Aesthetic Heroes

 Force Creativity

slide18

To develop the intellect and increase motivation for learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.

slide19

The Conceptual Mind

engages the

Personal Intellect

slide20

creates connections to prior experience and

finds relevance;

  • synergistically works with factual level knowledge

to develop the intellect;

  • creates deeper understanding at the factual and

conceptual levels;

  • recognizes the transferablity of knowledge.
  • creates the motivation for learning

It is the conceptual mind that…

slide22

Coordinated, Multidisciplinary

Topic Organizer:

A Little Art

A Little Math

Use of Language Processes

The

Human Body

A Little Science

The “Potpourri Unit”

of facts & activities

A Little Literature

slide23
Integration refers to the cognitive process of seeing patterns and connections at the conceptual levelof thinking.
slide24

This cognitive processing requires an integrating, “conceptual lens” such as Interdependence or Systemto set up the intellectual synergy between the factual and conceptual levels of the mind.

integrated inter disciplinary

Literature

System

Conceptual Lens:

The Human Body

(Science concepts)

The Scarlet Ibis (J. Hurst)

(limits of the human body)

To the Top: Annapurna (Blum)

(endurance, respiratory system)

Health

Integrated, Interdisciplinary

Wellness

Nutrition

Eating Disorders

Weight Management

Substance Abuse

Diseases

Physical Education

The

Human Body

Body Control

Movement

Coordination

Musculatory System

Fitness

Endurance

Science

Math

Calculations: heart rate, body mass,

Statistics

Measurements: height, weight

Ratios

Charts; graphs

Art

Circulatory System

Respiratory System

Digestive System, etc.

Function & structure

Interdependence

Draw a body:

symmetry, line, shape

Human forms - art

realism, abstract,

cubist

the goal of integration

... is to facilitate integrated, higher level thinking.

The goal of integration...

The conceptual lens

pulls thinking to the

integration level.

slide27

Interdependence

(lens)

History

• Early explorers

• Immigrants

• Statehistorical events

• Significant individuals

and ideas that shaped

the development of the

state and regions

• Interactions that shaped

the development

Grade 4

Culture

• Indigenous peoples

- ways of living

- use of resources

- then and now

• Explorers and settlers

- the impact of merging cultures

- daily lives

• State symbols,

monuments, statues…

Getting to

Know Our

State and

Region

Economics

• Land use in state and region

- industrial, recreational, commercial,

residential

• Economic activities:

- location of businesses related to

factors of production, consumption

and distribution

- Impact of technology on the economy

(state and region)

• Opportunity cost - The value of the

best alternative passed by (not selected)

• Cost/benefit

• Economic incentives

• Barter as trade

• Specialization

• Price changes: supply and demand

• Human resource - labor

• Inflation; deflation

Geography

• Place and location of

state within the U.S.

relative to other state;

other regions; in the

world

• Geographic features:

- landforms, bodies of

water, soils,

vegetation, climate

• Geographic tools to

consider spatial

concepts: location,

distance, direction,

scale, movement...

• Human/Environmental

interactions

- Plant and Animal Life

Government

• Stategovernment

- Structure, function, responsibilities

• Power and Authority

• Limited and unlimited governments

• Taxation: individuals,

business

• RulesandLaws

• Citizenship - Personal and civic

• Relationship of state to federal

government

• Thecommon good

(Concepts italicized)

slide28

Grade 4

Interdependence: Getting to Know Our State and Region

  • Culture:
  • Indigenous peoples depend on the environment for resources to meet basic
  • needs.
  • 2. Explorers extend the boundaries of human experience in search of wealth, power, and new opportunities.
  • 3. Settlers to a region adapt their lifestyle to fit the environment.
  • 4. States and regions develop an identity based on their history, geography, economics and culture.

Idea-Centered

Economics:

1. The geography and economy of a region suggest the kinds of industry.

2. The geography and economy of a region suggest the methods of production

and product or service distribution.

3. Current communication and transportation technologies allow goods to be

produced in distant locations at a lower cost, and shipped to market.

4. Technology can replace many human labor tasks in industry.

slide29

Industrialization and Paradox

Grade8

History

• Native Americans

- attitudes and policies

toward Native

Americans

by government

officials, the U.S.

Army, missionaries,

and settlers

- Dawes Severalty Act

of 1877

Economics

• Industrialization, the

advent of the modern

corporation, and

material well-being

- ideas of business leaders

to limit competition and

maximize profits

• Farming, mining, and

ranching

- commercial farming in

the Northeast, South,

Great Plains, and West

. Differences in terms of

crop production, farm

labor, financing, and

transportation

Culture

• Growth of cities

- response of urban

leaders, such as

architects and

philanthropists

to the challenges

of rapid

urbanization

• Immigration after 1870

- changing patterns:

volume, ethnicity,

religion, language,

place of origin, and

motives

- response of Catholic

and Jewish immigrants

to religious

discrimination

• New cultural movements

The Development

of the Industrial

United States

1870-1900

Geography

• Industrialization and

the environment

- impact of rapid

industrialization,

extractive mining

techniques, and the

“gridiron” pattern of

urban growth on the

environment

Government

• Growth of cities and

changes in urban life

- increasing power of

urban political

machines and how

they were viewed by

immigrants and middle class reformers

slide30

The Development of the Industrial.:1870-1900

Middle School

  • Economics/Culture:
  • Industrialization and large increases in immigrant populations create rapid urbanization.
  • Economics/Culture:
  • 2. Labor unions organize workers to protest working conditions, or wages which are perceived as unfair.
  • Economics:
  • 3. Industrialization leads to the development of corporations, managed by business leaders who seek to limit competition and maximize profits.
  • Culture:
  • 4. Large immigrant populations from diverse cultures can change the social, political, and economic dynamics of a nation.

Idea-Centered

teachers
TEACHERS

ARE ARCHITECTS

FOR LEARNING

slide32

Integrated, Intradisciplinary

Bond Energy

• potential energy

• bond strength

• exothermic and

endothermic bonds

Electronegativity

• periodic table trend

• ionic/covalent continuum

System/Interaction

(Conceptual Lens)

Bond Types

• covalent, ionic, metallic

• polar covalent

• orbital hybridization

• sigma and pi bonds

Modern Materials

• liquid crystals

• polymers

• ceramics

Unit Theme

Chemical

Bonding

Compounds & Properties

• amorphous solid

• crystalline solid

- moelcular, ionic, atomic

• liquids

- molecules with strong

intermolecular forces

• gases

- molecules with weak

intermolecular forces

Molecular Shape

• VSEPR Theory

• Valence-bond theory

• polarity

Intermolecular Forces

• London dispersion

• dipole-dipole

• hydrogen bonding

Atomic Structures

• valence electrons

• formation of ions

• electronegativity

Figure 5.11. Chemistry Unit

Source: Jean Lummis, Washington Township High School

Washington Township School District, Sewell, New Jersey; used with permission

(Concepts italicized)

slide33

Lens?

Lens?

Book 2

Literary Themes

Writer’s Craft

Book 1

(Concepts)

(Concepts)

Historical Fiction

To Kill a

Mockingbird

Book 3

(Concepts)

Loss of Innocence

Loss of

Innocence

In an

Imperfect World

generalizations are summaries of thought1

GENERALIZATIONS ARE SUMMARIES OF THOUGHT

“WHAT DO I UNDERSTAND AS A RESULT OF MY STUDY THAT I CAN TRANSFER?”

generalization enduring understanding1

GENERALIZATION=Enduring Understanding

Concept

Concept

Two or more concepts in a relationship...

• CONCEPTUAL IDEAS THAT TRANSFER

• DEVELOP “DEEP UNDERSTANDING’

sample generalizations social studies
Sample GeneralizationsSocial Studies
  • Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.
  • Social, economic and political systems structure a society.
  • Changes in laws and rules reflect changes in power relationships.
sample generalizations social studies1

Sample GeneralizationsSocial Studies

Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.

Social, economic and political systems structure a society.

Changes in laws and rules reflect changes in power relationships.

slide38

Sample GeneralizationsSocial Studies

  • Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.
  • Social, economic and political systems structure a society.
  • Changes in lawsand rules reflect changes in power relationships.
slide39

Sample GeneralizationsSocial Studies

  • Culture exhibits both change and continuity through time.
  • Social, economic and political systems structure a society.
  • Changes in lawsandrules reflect changes in power relationships.
sample generalizations science

Sample GeneralizationsScience

Properties distinguish living and non-living things.

Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.

Cells store energy in a variety of forms.

Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.

slide41

Sample GeneralizationsScience

  • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.
  • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.
  • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.
  • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.
slide42

Sample GeneralizationsScience

  • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.
  • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.
  • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.
  • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.
slide43

Sample GeneralizationsScience

  • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.
  • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.
  • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.
  • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.
slide44

Sample GeneralizationsScience

  • Properties distinguish living and non-living things.
  • Genetic and environmental influences lead to diversity of populations.
  • Cells store energy in a variety of forms.
  • Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns.
sample generalizations art
Sample GeneralizationsArt
  • Line defines shape and adds meaning.
  • Texture conveys nuance.
  • Positive and negative space create balance.
  • Color creates mood.
sample generalizations art1
Sample GeneralizationsArt
  • Line defines shape and adds meaning.
  • Texture conveys nuance.
  • Positive and negative space create balance.
  • Color creates mood.
slide47

Sample Mathematics Generalizations

Numbers and Operations

Grade level

9. Absolute value represents magnitude without regard

to direction.

10. Exponents and logarithms are inverse operations.

Matrices can represent multi-dimensional information

to aid in the solution of a problem.

Algebra

Grade level

  • K. Patterns can be extended.
  • 1. Number can show order.
  • Variables represent a unique value in equations.
  • The solutions to a one-step linear equation with a single
  • variable represents the value that makes
  • the equation true.
generalizations

GENERALIZATIONS

PROPER OR PERSONAL NOUNS

PAST

PAST PERFECT

PRESENT PERFECT

TENSE VERBS

slide49

When we teach to the levels of concepts and

generalizations we are teaching for deep

understanding and the transfer of knowledge.

integrated inter disciplinary1

Literature

System

Conceptual Lens:

The Human Body

(Science concepts)

The Scarlet Ibis (J. Hurst)

(limits of the human body)

To the Top: Annapurna (Blum)

(endurance, respiratory system)

Health

Integrated, Interdisciplinary

Wellness

Nutrition

Eating Disorders

Weight Management

Substance Abuse

Diseases

Physical Education

The

Human Body

Body Control

Movement

Coordination

Musculatory System

Fitness

Endurance

Science

Math

Calculations: heart rate, body mass,

Statistics

Measurements: height, weight

Ratios

Charts; graphs

Art

Circulatory System

Respiratory System

Digestive System, etc.

Function & structure

Interdependence

Draw a body:

symmetry, line, shape

Human forms - art

realism, abstract,

cubist

slide51

Interdependence

(lens)

History

• Early explorers

• Immigrants

• Statehistorical events

• Significant individuals

and ideas that shaped

the development of the

state and regions

• Interactions that shaped

the development

Grade 4

Culture

• Indigenous peoples

- ways of living

- use of resources

- then and now

• Explorers and settlers

- the impact of merging cultures

- daily lives

• State symbols,

monuments, statues…

Getting to

Know Our

State and

Region

Economics

• Land use in state and region

- industrial, recreational, commercial,

residential

• Economic activities:

- location of businesses related to

factors of production, consumption

and distribution

- Impact of technology on the economy

(state and region)

• Opportunity cost - The value of the

best alternative passed by (not selected)

• Cost/benefit

• Economic incentives

• Barter as trade

• Specialization

• Price changes: supply and demand

• Human resource - labor

• Inflation; deflation

Geography

• Place and location of

state within the U.S.

relative to other state;

other regions; in the

world

• Geographic features:

- landforms, bodies of

water, soils,

vegetation, climate

• Geographic tools to

consider spatial

concepts: location,

distance, direction,

scale, movement...

• Human/Environmental

interactions

- Plant and Animal Life

Government

• Stategovernment

- Structure, function, responsibilities

• Power and Authority

• Limited and unlimited governments

• Taxation: individuals,

business

• RulesandLaws

• Citizenship - Personal and civic

• Relationship of state to federal

government

• Thecommon good

(Concepts italicized)

slide52

High School

Perspectives

History

Sept. 11, 2001

as a “turning point”

Afghanistan and

the hunt for Bin Laden

Al Qaeda/terrorist groups

Significant individuals

*Bush *Blair *Hussein…

Iraq

*Saddam Hussein

* citizens

The allies and

their roles

Lens:

  • Culture
  • Religion
  • Beliefs/Values
  • Perspectives
  • Terrorists/Terrorism
  • Cultures
  • Oppression/Oppressed

The War

on Terrorism

  • Economics
  • Cost of war
  • * human
  • * environmental
  • * societal
  • Government
  • Leaders
  • Treaties
  • Policies
  • Leadership
  • Cooperation
  • Conflict

Geography

  • Climate
  • Terrain
  • (or geography)
  • -Resources
  • -Geography and
  • war

(Concepts italicized)

slide53

Level 1 Verbs

  • affects
  • impacts
  • influence
  • to be verbs: is, are, have

Level 1 Generalization:

The student understands that…_______________________

_________________________________________________.

scaffolding thinking to complex levels
Level 3

Celebrations and traditions unify a people and reflect their identity.

So what—is the significance (or effect)—that celebrations

express traditions?

Level 2

Celebrations express traditions of a culture.

Why do cultures have celebrations?

Level 1

All cultures have celebrations.

Scaffolding Thinking to Complex Levels

Social Studies

scaffolding thinking to complex levels1
Scaffolding Thinking to Complex Levels

Level 3

Nations with a strong economic infrastructure wield greater political power in international relations.

So what is the effect or significance of a strong economic

infrastructure for a society?

Level 2

Advances in technology lead to the development of new products and materials which can strengthen the economic infrastructure of a society.

How (or Why) do advances in technology impact a society?

Level 1

Advances in technology impact a society.

scaffolding thinking to complex levels2
Scaffolding Thinking to Complex Levels

Science

  • Level 3
    • An organism’s behavioral responses to stimuli evolve through natural selection.
      • How do organisms change behaviors?
  • Level 2
    • Biological adaptations change structures, behaviors, or physiology and enhance reproductive success.
      • How do organisms survive?
  • Level 1
    • Organisms survive in diverse environments.
slide58

Scaffolding Understandings—

Gothic Literature: Edgar Allan Poe

Thematic “Big Ideas” (Enduring Understandings)

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Guiltnarrows and

intensifies focus

and shapes

perception.

Perceptioncan cause

people to make

poor choices and

decisions.

Guiltaffects

perception.

How?

So what?

The Writer’s Craft

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Consonance, assonance

andalliterationcreate a

flowto thelanguage

throughsound, rhyme,

cadence and repetition.

The use ofliterary

devicescreates

moodsandempha-

sizeswords, connect-

ing them to the

ideasthey express.

Consonance,assonance

andalliterationenhance

reading pleasure.

by Del Whitmire

& Amy Pritzl

Green Bay, WI.

How?

So what?

slide59

Evaluating Scaffolding

Criteria

  • * Do the ideas grow in sophistication?
  • * Do the ideas become clearer from
  • level to level because they are more
  • specific (use more specific concepts)?
  • * Did the committee answer their question at
  • each level?
  • * Are the verbs active and present tense?
  • * Are the ideas based in fact? (Are they true?)
  • Are the ideas important?
  • Are the ideas developmentally appropriate?
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