Acids bases
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Acids & Bases. They are everywhere.. In your food In your house EVEN IN YOU!!!!!. What is an acid?. An acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour". The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution. Properties of an Acid.

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Acids & Bases

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Acids bases

Acids & Bases

They are everywhere..

In your food

In your house

EVEN IN YOU!!!!!


What is an acid

What is an acid?

  • An acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour".

  • The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution.


Properties of an acid

Properties of an Acid

  • Tastes Sour

  • Conduct Electricity

  • Corrosive, which means they break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin,and paper

  • Some acids react strongly with metals

  • Turns blue litmus paper red


Uses of acids

Uses of Acids

  • Acetic Acid = Vinegar

  • Citric Acid = lemons, limes, & oranges. It is in many sour candies such as lemonhead & sour patch.

  • Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C which your body needs to function.

  • Sulfuric acid is used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, and plastics.

  • Car batteries


What is a base

What is a base?

  • A base is a solution that has an excess of OH- ions.

  • Another word for base is alkali.

  • Bases are substances that can accept hydrogen ions


Properties of a base

Properties of a Base

  • Feel Slippery

  • Taste Bitter

  • Corrosive

  • Can conduct electricity. (Think alkaline batteries.)

  • Do not react with metals.

  • Turns red litmus paper blue.


Uses of bases

Uses of Bases

  • Bases give soaps, ammonia, and many other cleaning products some of their useful properties.

  • The OH- ions interact strongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease.

  • Chalk and oven cleaner are examples of familiar products that contain bases.

  • Your blood is a basic solution.


Acids bases

Let’s examine the behavior of an acid, HA, in aqueous solution.

HA

What happens to the HA molecules in solution?


Acids bases

100% dissociation of HA

HA

H+

Strong Acid

A-

Would the solution be conductive?


Acids bases

Partial dissociation of HA

HA

H+

Weak Acid

A-

Would the solution be conductive?


Acids bases

HA  H+ + A-

HA

H+

Weak Acid

A-

At any one time, only a fraction of the molecules are dissociated.


Strong and weak acids bases

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions

HClNaOH

HNO3KOH

H2SO4

Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation, both ions and molecules

CH3COOHNH3


Ph scale

pH Scale

  • pHis a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.

  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.

  • Acidic solutions have pH values below 7

  • A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.

  • A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.

  • Pure water has a pH of 7.

  • Basic solutions have pH values above 7.


Acids bases

pH Scale

  • A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.

  • For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.


Acid base reactions

Acid – Base Reactions

  • A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. An acid-base mixture is not as acidic or basic as the individual starting solutions.


Acid base reactions1

Acid – Base reactions

  • Each salt listed in this table can be formed by the reaction between an acid and a base.


Acids bases

Bronsted-Lowry Model

acid: anything that donates a [H+] (proton donor)

base: anything that accepts a [H+] (proton acceptor)

acid + base <=> acid + base

HNO2 + H2O <=> NO2- + H3O+

Each acid has a conjugate base and each base has a conjugate acid. These conjugate pairs only differ by a proton. In this example: HNO2 is the acid, H2O is the base, NO2- is the conj. base, and H3O+ is the conj. acid.

The Trick- Pick a compound on the left side of the equation.

Find the similar compound on the other side of the reaction. The species with 1 more Hydrogen is the acid, the one with less is the base.

HNO2 <=> NO2- or H2O <=> H3O+

So HNO2 is the acid. So H3O+ is the acid.


Acids bases

Past Regents Questions

According to one acid-base theory, water acts as an acid when an H2O molecule

(1) accepts an H+ (3) accepts an H-

(2) donates an H+ (4) donates an H-

An acid can be defined as an

(1) H+ acceptor (3) OH- acceptor

(2) H+ donor (4) OH- donor


Acids bases

AUTOIONIZATION of WATER

Water is Amphiprotic

H2O(l) + H2O(l) <==> H3O+(aq) + OH¯(aq)


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