Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School
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Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School -wide Positive Behavior Supports. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports www.pbis.org. Starting Point…. Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave

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Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports

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Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School-wide Positive Behavior Supports

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

www.pbis.org


Starting Point….

  • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave

  • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave

  • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity


The Challenge

  • The “core curriculum” is often punishment to try and reduce problem behavior in school

  • However, “punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)


The Good News…

Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are (Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998;Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994):

  • Social Skills Training

  • Academic Restructuring

  • Behavioral Interventions

    = instructional strategies - “teaching”


School-wide Positive Behavior Support

SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior

OSEP Center on PBIS


Essential Features at the School Level

  • Teams of educators within the school

  • Data-based decision making

  • Instructional Focus

    • Teach & Practice

  • Acknowledge student mastery of social skills

    • Positive Feedback


Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%


Universal School-Wide Features

  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)

    • All Settings

    • Classrooms

  • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors

  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors

  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors

  • Procedures for data-based decision making

  • Family Awareness and Involvement


Benton Elementary School


Tier II (small group)

  • Efficient and effective way to identify at-risk students

    • Screen

    • Data decision rules

  • Informal assessment process to match intervention to student need

    • Small group Social Skill Instruction

    • Self-management

    • Academic Support

  • Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system


Tier III (individualized support)

  • When small group not sufficient

  • When problem intense and chronic

  • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment

  • Connections to Mental Health and Community Agencies

  • Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system


Outcomes


Mental Health Outcomes

  • Does School-wide SW-PBS fit within a comprehensive mental health model of prevention and intervention?

    Minimizing and reducing “risk factors” by building “protective factors”


A&D = Alcohol and Drug; ABS = Anti-social Behavior Scale


Tier II & IIISmall Group and Individual Interventions

Supporting Students At-Risk and those with Disabilities Within Their Home School


Comparison of a Social Skill Intervention in SW-PBS and non SW-PBS schools

* Significance at the .05 P Value


Classroom Intervention within SW-PBS

  • Subject:

    • Seven years old

    • Identified with EBD and ADHD

  • Setting

    • General education 2nd grade classroom with 19 other students

  • Concern

    • Student exhibits high rates of off-task

    • Student shouts out answers and questions and comments at high rates and often inappropriate

      Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a structural assessment: Analyzing the merits of an assessment tool for a student with E/BD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30, 25-40


Does Implementation of SW-PBS Improve Individual Interventions?

  • Illinois “profile” analysis.

    • Assessment of intervention effectiveness

      Very Low, Low, Med, High, Very High

      0 1 2 3 4

    • School-wide

    • Individual Intervention


t = 11.11 (335) p< .0001

  • t = 2.30 (27) p < .03

N=223

N=38

N=17

N=169

Partial

N=169

Full

N=223

Partial

N=17

Full

N=38


Field Elementary School

SW-PBS and Response to Intervention with Literacy


Field Elementary School

  • High Diversity

    • School has 290 students; 50% minority; 20% English Language Learners; 13% Special Education

  • Instructional leader turnover

  • Poverty

    • 79% of students live in poverty

  • Highly transient population


Field Elementary School

  • Teachers and Staff committed to increasing academic and social successof all students

  • A committed Principal who supported faculty in their efforts to change the way they taught to improve children’s lives


Field Elementary School

  • Academic Standing

    • Only 5% of all students scored proficient in 2005

    • Breakdown by ethnicity:

      • 0% African-American

      • 18% Caucasian

      • 0% Students with disabilities

      • 0% English Language Learners

      • 7% Students living in Poverty


Field Elementary School

  • Literacy

    • In 2004–05, 44% students required intensive support for reading and writing

  • Social Behavior

    • In 2003-04 Averaging 10.4 discipline referrals per day


  • Positive Behavior Supports


    Impact on Behavior Problems

    To 1.6 per day

    From 10.4 per day

    MU College of Education —

    140 years of discovery, teaching and learning


    Impact on Literacy

    • Improved Academic Standing

      • In 2007, 27% of Field’s students scored proficient in 2007 (up from 5%).

      • African American: 0% improved to 16%

      • Caucasian: 18% improved to 57%

      • Students with disabilities: 0% improved to 25%

      • English Language Learners: 0% improved to 27%


    Why Invest in SW-PBS?

    • Change in school discipline system creates an environment that promotes, teaches, and acknowledges appropriate behavior

    • Reduction in problem behavior resulting in less staff time dealing with problems, more student time in the classroom

    • Improved academic performance

    • Improved social behavior performance

    • Improved school safety, mental health connections, and individual interventions


    Impact of our SW-PBS Center’s Efforts To Date

    • Over 11,000 schools in the United States

    • Working with researchers and educators in Canada, Australia, and several countries in Europe


    Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School-wide Positive Behavior Supports

    Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

    University of Missouri

    Center on Positive

    Behavioral Intervention & Supports

    www.pbis.org


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