Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School
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Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School -wide Positive Behavior Supports. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports www.pbis.org. Starting Point…. Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave

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Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports

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Tim lewis ph d university of missouri center on positive behavioral intervention supports

Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School-wide Positive Behavior Supports

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

www.pbis.org


Starting point

Starting Point….

  • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave

  • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave

  • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity


The challenge

The Challenge

  • The “core curriculum” is often punishment to try and reduce problem behavior in school

  • However, “punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)


The good news

The Good News…

Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are (Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998;Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994):

  • Social Skills Training

  • Academic Restructuring

  • Behavioral Interventions

    = instructional strategies - “teaching”


School wide positive behavior support

School-wide Positive Behavior Support

SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior

OSEP Center on PBIS


Essential features at the school level

Essential Features at the School Level

  • Teams of educators within the school

  • Data-based decision making

  • Instructional Focus

    • Teach & Practice

  • Acknowledge student mastery of social skills

    • Positive Feedback


Tim lewis ph d university of missouri center on positive behavioral intervention supports

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


Designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%


Universal school wide features

Universal School-Wide Features

  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)

    • All Settings

    • Classrooms

  • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors

  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors

  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors

  • Procedures for data-based decision making

  • Family Awareness and Involvement


Benton elementary school

Benton Elementary School


Tier ii small group

Tier II (small group)

  • Efficient and effective way to identify at-risk students

    • Screen

    • Data decision rules

  • Informal assessment process to match intervention to student need

    • Small group Social Skill Instruction

    • Self-management

    • Academic Support

  • Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system


Tier iii individualized support

Tier III (individualized support)

  • When small group not sufficient

  • When problem intense and chronic

  • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment

  • Connections to Mental Health and Community Agencies

  • Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system


Outcomes

Outcomes


Mental health outcomes

Mental Health Outcomes

  • Does School-wide SW-PBS fit within a comprehensive mental health model of prevention and intervention?

    Minimizing and reducing “risk factors” by building “protective factors”


Tim lewis ph d university of missouri center on positive behavioral intervention supports

A&D = Alcohol and Drug; ABS = Anti-social Behavior Scale


Tier ii iii small group and individual interventions

Tier II & IIISmall Group and Individual Interventions

Supporting Students At-Risk and those with Disabilities Within Their Home School


Comparison of a social skill intervention in sw pbs and non sw pbs schools

Comparison of a Social Skill Intervention in SW-PBS and non SW-PBS schools

* Significance at the .05 P Value


Classroom intervention within sw pbs

Classroom Intervention within SW-PBS

  • Subject:

    • Seven years old

    • Identified with EBD and ADHD

  • Setting

    • General education 2nd grade classroom with 19 other students

  • Concern

    • Student exhibits high rates of off-task

    • Student shouts out answers and questions and comments at high rates and often inappropriate

      Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a structural assessment: Analyzing the merits of an assessment tool for a student with E/BD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30, 25-40


Does implementation of sw pbs improve i ndividual i nterventions

Does Implementation of SW-PBS Improve Individual Interventions?

  • Illinois “profile” analysis.

    • Assessment of intervention effectiveness

      Very Low, Low, Med, High, Very High

      0 1 2 3 4

    • School-wide

    • Individual Intervention


Tim lewis ph d university of missouri center on positive behavioral intervention supports

t = 11.11 (335) p< .0001

  • t = 2.30 (27) p < .03

N=223

N=38

N=17

N=169

Partial

N=169

Full

N=223

Partial

N=17

Full

N=38


Field elementary school

Field Elementary School

SW-PBS and Response to Intervention with Literacy


Field elementary school1

Field Elementary School

  • High Diversity

    • School has 290 students; 50% minority; 20% English Language Learners; 13% Special Education

  • Instructional leader turnover

  • Poverty

    • 79% of students live in poverty

  • Highly transient population


Field elementary school2

Field Elementary School

  • Teachers and Staff committed to increasing academic and social successof all students

  • A committed Principal who supported faculty in their efforts to change the way they taught to improve children’s lives


Field elementary school3

Field Elementary School

  • Academic Standing

    • Only 5% of all students scored proficient in 2005

    • Breakdown by ethnicity:

      • 0% African-American

      • 18% Caucasian

      • 0% Students with disabilities

      • 0% English Language Learners

      • 7% Students living in Poverty


Field elementary school4

Field Elementary School

  • Literacy

    • In 2004–05, 44% students required intensive support for reading and writing

  • Social Behavior

    • In 2003-04 Averaging 10.4 discipline referrals per day


  • Tim lewis ph d university of missouri center on positive behavioral intervention supports

    Positive Behavior Supports


    Impact on behavior problems

    Impact on Behavior Problems

    To 1.6 per day

    From 10.4 per day

    MU College of Education —

    140 years of discovery, teaching and learning


    Impact on literacy

    Impact on Literacy

    • Improved Academic Standing

      • In 2007, 27% of Field’s students scored proficient in 2007 (up from 5%).

      • African American: 0% improved to 16%

      • Caucasian: 18% improved to 57%

      • Students with disabilities: 0% improved to 25%

      • English Language Learners: 0% improved to 27%


    Why invest in sw pbs

    Why Invest in SW-PBS?

    • Change in school discipline system creates an environment that promotes, teaches, and acknowledges appropriate behavior

    • Reduction in problem behavior resulting in less staff time dealing with problems, more student time in the classroom

    • Improved academic performance

    • Improved social behavior performance

    • Improved school safety, mental health connections, and individual interventions


    Impact of our sw pbs center s efforts to date

    Impact of our SW-PBS Center’s Efforts To Date

    • Over 11,000 schools in the United States

    • Working with researchers and educators in Canada, Australia, and several countries in Europe


    Tim lewis ph d university of missouri center on positive behavioral intervention supports

    Supporting Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders through School-wide Positive Behavior Supports

    Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

    University of Missouri

    Center on Positive

    Behavioral Intervention & Supports

    www.pbis.org


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