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INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON EARLY WARNING AND BUSINESS CYCLE INDICATORS 14-16 December 2009, Scheveningen, The Netherlands. 10 years experience in forecasting turning points. Jacques Anas Director, Economic Indicators and Statistical Models [email protected] Introduction.

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Jacques anas director economic indicators and statistical models janas@coe rexecode fr l.jpg

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON EARLY WARNING AND BUSINESS CYCLE INDICATORS

14-16 December 2009, Scheveningen, The Netherlands

10 years experience

in forecasting turning points

Jacques Anas

Director, Economic Indicators and Statistical Models

[email protected]


Introduction l.jpg

Introduction

  • In 1996, The Chamber of Commerce of Paris decided to investigate the development of a leading indicator for the French economy. This has been the starting point of this detecting system I will present : methodology and real time results.

  • The concept of turning point must be clearly defined : A hidden event (local extrema, change of regime), quite difficult to predict.

  • Expectations of users (Government, Central Banks, corporate sector, economists for their prediction) are not identical.

    If the goal is clear (anticipate an economic upturn or downturn), the

    communication is an issue (probability, threshold and signal, risk, quantitative implication). There is a need to simplify the messages and to link the signal to an economic analysis.

  • A tool to be used in complement of other tools (modelisation, short-term analysis by economists). It must be considered as a safety net.

  • Validation is an issue (ex-post dating to have a reference chronology)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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The concept of detection

1.We consider here the follow-up of cyclical movements through cyclical indicators with the purpose to be timely or even leading the movements;

2. It is different than using warning indicators, more structural (imbalances for ex) and potentially leading to crises.

Past TP’s Dating (chronology)

Present TP’s Real time detection (implicitly predicting the future also!)

Future TP’s Predicting turning points (there is an interesting topic: what is a false alarm? It may happen that the signal is invalidated by an external shock or by a quick policy-mix answer.

www.coe.ccip.fr

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Turning point detection system

  • A conceptual framework: the ABCD approach

  • 3 indicators:

    • IARC: Indicateur avancé de retournement conjoncturel (to predict A and D)

    • IESR: Indicateur d’entrée-sortie de récession (to detect B and C)

    • IRC: Indicateur de croissance sous-jacente

      To validate the signals of the IARC and IESR indicators

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


The framework the abcd approach l.jpg

The framework: the ABCD approach

What kind of a cycle?

  • Classical business cycle  Level

  • Growth cycle  Deviation to trend

  • Growth rate cycle  Variation

    Vocabulary issue:

    phases of BC : recession and upturn

    phases of GC: slowdown and rebound

    phases of AC : deceleration and re-acceleration

www.coe.ccip.fr

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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ABCD approach

Three possible representations

  • Classical cycle (in level)

  • Growth cycle (deviation from trend)

  • Growth rate cycle

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Three possible sequences of downturn movements

Pure acceleration cycle (« trou d’air »)

  • αβ

    Growth cycle:

  • αA(β)D

  • αA(βαβ)D with an acceleration cycle during the slowdown

    Business cycle: (βis the first optimistic signal)

  • αAB(β)CD

  • αAB(βαβ)CD with an acceleration cycle during the recession

  • αAB(βCαBβ)CD case of a double-dip recession

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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United States

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Euro area

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


A couple of probabilistic indicators applied to france the euro area and united states l.jpg

A couple of probabilistic indicators applied to France, the euro area and United States

Importance of non linear processes in business cycle analysis

A leading indicator of the growth cycle (IARC)

  • Based on Neftçi’s a posteriori probability method applied to leading series (Neftçi, 1982, 1984).

    A coincident indicator of the business cycle (IESR)

  • Based on the univariate Markov switching model applied to coincident series (Hamilton, 1989, 1990).

    An important step is the selection of indicators on which the model is applied. An aggregation method has been developed to combine the probabilities

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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1. IARC indicator predicting A and D

  • Computed since 1997

  • Need of a preliminary dating of the growth cycle turning points to select the candidate leading indicators

  • Multiple criteria (statistical, practical and economic) to select the leading indicators (real, financial and surveys)

Recursive bayesian algorythm of Neftçi (1982)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Prediction of a global turning point based on one component

Each « k » component allows for the computation of the probability of a coming economic turning point (Rt=1)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


Components of us iarc l.jpg

Stock Market Index (MA3)

Consumers anticipations

Interest Rate Differential (MA3)

Manufacturing Inventories (inverse)

Chief Executives Polls

New Construction Permits

Components of US IARC

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Weighted aggregation of the «a posteriori probabilities» (a prioriweights)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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2. IESR indicator (coincident for B and C)

  • Modelling coincident variables by Markov Switching models

  • (St)t K-state first order Markov chain with transition probabilities pij where p11+ p12+ …+ p1K =1

  • Parameters estimation: maximum likelihood in conjunction with Expectation-Maximization

  • Choice of K: comparison of 2 and 3 regimes in terms of cycle replication measured by:

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Decision rules for communication

Empirical thresholds for aggregate probabilities

  • IARC

    • 60% and 80% for the aggregate IARC

  • SERI

    • 50% for filtered probabilities and the aggregate probability

www.coe.ccip.fr

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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3. IRC indicator(temporal disaggregation)Goal : we need to validate quicly a signalAnswer: by estimating a monthly GDP underlying growth rate ( few revisions, increased timeliness, reduced volatility) General form of ADL models (Autoregressive Distributive Lag)-

is the matrix of k endogenous series of size (n x k)

are vectors of size (n x 1)

and are constant

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


Selection process of the best model l.jpg

Selection process of the best model

  • Univariate selection of the best series for estimating the last three years period of definitive GDP (2004-2006)

  • Selection of the best three series (in level or in difference)

    The choice :

    - Estimate and extrapolate the model using all past quarterly GDP available at the cost of revising the estimate

    or

    - Estimate and extrapolate using only »final» data at the cost of missing strong movements which can’t be captured with surveys (present case)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


The selected model for the united states l.jpg

The selected modelfor the United States

- Housing Index

- manufacturing ISM

- Household confidence index (Conference Board)

: monthly variation of GDP

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Performance analysis IARC of France (1997-2006)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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4 recessions in France since 1970

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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9 slowdowns (4 are related to a recession)

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Slowdowns happen when growth is below trend growth rate

1

3

2

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Asian CrisisSignal for the related slowdownAt the end of May we could say : “the economic slowdown may have been of short duration, probably three quarters, and also of low amplitude

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Slowdown of 2001As early as September 2000, the 80 threshold was reached in the euro area

October 2000 IARC indicator for the euro area published on November 23, 2000

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Signal of slowdown exit in July-August 2003A signal was given however in February 2002 but in October 2002, we could say that the rebound was aborting

August 2003 IARC indicator for France published on October 3, 2003

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Acceleration cycle in 2005A slowdown was anticpated in June but the signal was weak and cacelled out as soon as September 2005”

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Performance of the indicators IARC, IESR and IRC during the current cycle

“How they work together”

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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EURO area-Signal of slowdown with June 2007 IARC-Signal of recession with August 2008 IESR (published 14th of October)-Signal of exit of slowdown with May 2009 IARC-Signal of exit of recession with September 2009 IESR

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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IARC, IRC and GDP for France

IARC of August 2007 >80  Peak of the growth cycle in the coming 3 months

September 18,2007 signal !

Start of the recession according to IRC!

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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IARC, IRC and GDP for France(real time analysis , even for GDP)

IARC of May 2009 <-80  Trough of the growth cycle in the coming 3 months

June 5, 2009 signal !

End of recession according to IRC

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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IARC, IRC, IESR and GDP in the United States(real time analysis , except for GDP)

IARC of May 2009 <-80  Trough of the growth cycle in the coming 3 months

June 3, 2009 signal !

IESR = 0.65 in October still no sign of exit of the recession

August 28, 2009 statement :

End of recession according to a markovian model based on initial claims for unemployment (date : June)

End of recession according to IRC

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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Improvements for the future

  • The results of the indicators were quite useful to complement the short-term economic analysis. When the indicator is not going in the same direction of an analysis, it stimulates the discussion and imposes some cautiousness in assertions. At times, it may correct the prediction. But there is a real difficulty to communicate.

  • The communication with the sequential Netçi’s approach is not easy because it is a recursive process with a discontinuity (semi-parametric approach). A times series approach would be preferable. We may also consider a multivariate approach. Models with more than two regimes may help to consider anticipating A,B, C and D at the same time.

  • It is rather difficult to make a difference between anticipating a deceleration and anticipating a slowdown. We have not been successful in making this difference but at least we could quickly detect the re-acceleration (which may be an abortion of a rebound for exemple). A particular example is the signal of economic upturn in United States given during the summer 2001 but which was invalidated by September 11.

  • A route to improve the pertinence of the signal is to increase the threshold from 80 to 90 for example, but we may lose on lead. There is a trade-off between timeliness and minimizing first-type errors.

10 years experience in forecasting turning points


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